Weekly Papers on Quantum Foundations (12)

Author(s): C. Jess Riedel

When the wave function of a large quantum system unitarily evolves away from a low-entropy initial state, there is strong circumstantial evidence it develops “branches”: a decomposition into orthogonal components that is indistinguishable from the corresponding incoherent mixture with feasible obser…
[Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 120402] Published Fri Mar 24, 2017

Authors: Supratik SarkarA. Bhattacharyay

Arising out of a Non-local non-relativistic BEC, we present an Analogue gravity model upto $\mathcal{O}(\xi^{2})$ accuracy in the presence of the quantum potential term for a canonical acoustic BH in $(3+1)$-d spacetime where the series solution of the free minimally coupled KG equation for the large length scale massive scalar modes is derived. We systematically address the issues of the presence of the quantum potential term being the root cause of a UV-IR coupling between short wavelength “primary” modes which are supposedly Hawking radiated through the sonic event horizon and the large wavelength “secondary” modes. In the quantum gravity experiments of analogue Hawking radiation in the laboratory, this UV-IR coupling is inevitable and one can not get rid of these large wavelength excitations which would grow over space by gaining energy from the short wavelength Hawking radiated modes. We identify the characteristic feature in the growth rate(s) that would distinguish these primary and secondary modes.

Authors: Siddarth Koduru JoshiJacques PienaarTimothy C. RalphLuigi CacciapuotiWill McCutcheonJohn RarityDirk GiggenbachVadim MakarovIvette FuentesThomas ScheidlErik BeckertMohamed BourennaneDavid Edward BruschiAdan CabelloJose CapmanyJosé A. CarrascoAlberto Carrasco-Casado,Eleni DiamantiMiloslav DuusekDominique ElserAngelo GulinattiRobert H. HadfieldThomas Jennewein,Rainer KaltenbaekMichael A. KrainakHoi-Kwong LoChristoph MarquardtPaolo MataloniGerard Milburn,Momtchil PeevAndreas PoppeValerio PruneriRenato RennerChristophe SalomonJohannes Skaar,Nikolaos SolomosMario StipčevićJuan P. TorresMorio ToyoshimaPaolo VilloresiIan WalmsleyGregor WeihsHarald WeinfurterAnton ZeilingerMarek ŻukowskiRupert Ursin

Models of quantum systems on curved space-times lack sufficient experimental verification. Some speculative theories suggest that quantum properties, such as entanglement, may exhibit entirely different behavior to purely classical systems. By measuring this effect or lack thereof, we can test the hypotheses behind several such models. For instance, as predicted by Ralph and coworkers [T C Ralph, G J Milburn, and T Downes, Phys. Rev. A, 79(2):22121, 2009; T C Ralph and J Pienaar, New Journal of Physics, 16(8):85008, 2014], a bipartite entangled system could decohere if each particle traversed through a different gravitational field gradient. We propose to study this effect in a ground to space uplink scenario. We extend the above theoretical predictions of Ralph and coworkers and discuss the scientific consequences of detecting/failing to detect the predicted gravitational decoherence. We present a detailed mission design of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Space QUEST (Space – Quantum Entanglement Space Test) mission, and study the feasibility of the mission schema.

Authors: Christopher A. FuchsMichael C. HoangBlake C. Stacey

Recent years have seen significant advances in the study of symmetric informationally complete (SIC) quantum measurements, also known as maximal sets of complex equiangular lines. Previously, the published record contained solutions up to dimension 67, and was with high confidence complete up through dimension 50. Computer calculations have now furnished solutions in all dimensions up to 151, and in several cases beyond that, as large as dimension 323. These new solutions exhibit an additional type of symmetry beyond the basic definition of a SIC, and so verify a conjecture of Zauner in many new cases. The solutions in dimensions 68 through 121 were obtained by Andrew Scott, and his catalogue of distinct solutions is, with high confidence, complete up to dimension 90. Additional results in dimensions 122 through 151 were calculated by the authors using Scott’s code. We recap the history of the problem, outline how the numerical searches were done, and pose some conjectures on how the search technique could be improved. In order to facilitate communication across disciplinary boundaries, we also present a comprehensive bibliography of SIC research.

Authors: Xavier CalmetJacob Dunningham

We revisit the properties of qubits under Lorentz transformations and, by considering Lorentz invariant quantum states in the Heisenberg formulation, clarify some misleading notation that has appeared in the literature on relativistic quantum information theory. We then use this formulation to consider the transformation properties of qubits and density matrices under space-time and gauge transformations. Finally we use our results to understand the behaviour of entanglement between different partitions of quantum systems. Our approach not only clarifies the notation, but provides a more intuitive and simple way of gaining insight into the behaviour of relativistic qubits. In particular, it allows us to greatly generalize the results in the current literature as well as substantially simplifying the calculations that are needed.

Authors: Emmanuele BattistaAngelo TartagliaGiampiero EspositoDavid LucchesiMatteo Luca Ruggiero,Pavol ValkoSimone Dell’ AgnelloLuciano Di FioreJules SimoAniello Grado

We examine quantum corrections of time delay arising in the gravitational field of a spinning oblate source. Low-energy quantum effects occurring in Kerr geometry are derived within a framework where general relativity is fully seen as an effective field theory. By employing such a pattern, gravitational radiative modifications of Kerr metric are derived from the energy-momentum tensor of the source, which at lowest order in the fields is modelled as a point mass. Therefore, in order to describe a quantum corrected version of time delay in the case in which the source body has a finite extension, we introduce a hybrid scheme where quantum fluctuations affect only the monopole term occurring in the multipole expansion of the Newtonian potential. The predicted quantum deviation from the corresponding classical value turns out to be too small to be detected in the next future, showing that new models should be examined in order to test low-energy quantum gravity within the solar system.

Authors: Alexandre Gondran (MAIAA), Michel Gondran (AEIS)

Playing the game of heads or tails in zero gravity demonstrates that there exists a contextual “measurement” in classical mechanics. When the coin is flipped, its orientation is a continuous variable. However, the “measurement” that occurs when the coin is caught by clapping two hands together gives a discrete value (heads or tails) that depends on the context (orientation of the hands). It is then shown that there is a strong analogy with the spin measurement of the Stern-Gerlach experiment, and in particular with Stern and Gerlach’s sequential measurements. Finally, we clarify the analogy by recalling how the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation simply explains the spin “measurement”.

Authors: Abhay AshtekarJorge Pullin

This is the introductory Chapter in the monograph Loop Quantum Gravity: The First 30 Years, edited by the authors, that was just published in the series “100 Years of General Relativity. The 8 invited Chapters that follow provide fresh perspectives on the current status of the field from some of the younger and most active leaders who are currently shaping its development. The purpose of this Chapter is to provide a global overview by bridging the material covered in subsequent Chapters. The goal and scope of the monograph is described in the Preface which can be read by following the Front Matter link at the website listed below.

Authors: Abhay AshtekarJorge Pullin

This is the introductory Chapter in the monograph Loop Quantum Gravity: The First 30 Years, edited by the authors, that was just published in the series “100 Years of General Relativity. The 8 invited Chapters that follow provide fresh perspectives on the current status of the field from some of the younger and most active leaders who are currently shaping its development. The purpose of this Chapter is to provide a global overview by bridging the material covered in subsequent Chapters. The goal and scope of the monograph is described in the Preface which can be read by following the Front Matter link at the website listed below.

Authors: Fay DowkerStav Zalel

The causal set approach to the problem of quantum gravity is based on the hypothesis that spacetime is fundamentally discrete. Spacetime discreteness opens the door to novel types of dynamical law for cosmology and the Classical Sequential Growth (CSG) models of Rideout and Sorkin form an interesting class of such laws. It has been shown that a renormalisation of the dynamical parameters of a CSG model occurs whenever the universe undergoes a Big Crunch-Big Bang bounce. In this paper we propose a way to model the creation of a new universe after the singularity of a black hole. We show that renormalisation of dynamical parameters occurs in a CSG model after such a creation event. We speculate that this could realise aspects of Smolin’s Cosmological Natural Selection proposal.

Authors: Bernard CarrFlorian KuhnelMarit Sandstad

The possibility that the dark matter comprises primordial black holes (PBHs) is considered, with particular emphasis on the currently allowed mass windows at $10^{16}$ – $10^{17}\,$g, $10^{20}$ – $10^{24}\,$g and $1$ – $10^{3}\,M_{\odot}$. The Planck mass relics of smaller evaporating PBHs are also considered. All relevant constraints (lensing, dynamical, large-scale structure and accretion) are reviewed and various effects necessary for a precise calculation of the PBH abundance (non-Gaussianity, non-sphericity, critical collapse and merging) are accounted for. It is difficult to put all the dark matter in PBHs if their mass function is monochromatic but this is still possible if the mass function is extended, as expected in many scenarios. A novel procedure for confronting observational constraints with an extended PBH mass spectrum is therefore introduced. This applies for arbitrary constraints and a wide range of PBH formation models, and allows us to identify which model-independent conclusions can be drawn from constraints over all mass ranges. We focus particularly on PBHs generated by inflation, pointing out which effects in the formation process influence the mapping from the inflationary power spectrum to the PBH mass function. We then apply our scheme to two specific inflationary models in which PBHs provide the dark matter. The possibility that the dark matter is in intermediate-mass PBHs of $1$ – $10^{3}\,M_{\odot}$ is of special interest in view of the recent detection of black-hole mergers by LIGO. The possibility of Planck relics is also intriguing but virtually untestable.

Authors: A. VinanteR. MezzenaP. FalferiM. CarlessoA. Bassi

Spontaneous collapse models predict that a weak force noise acts on any mechanical system, as a consequence of the collapse of the wave function. Significant upper limits on the collapse rate have been recently inferred from precision mechanical experiments, such as ultracold cantilevers and the space mission LISA Pathfinder. Here, we report new results from an experiment based on a high Q cantilever cooled to millikelvin temperature, potentially able to improve by one order of magnitude the current bounds on the continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) model. High accuracy measurements of the cantilever thermal fluctuations reveal a nonthermal force noise of unknown origin. This excess noise is compatible with the CSL heating predicted by Adler. Several physical mechanisms able to explain the observed noise have been ruled out.

Authors: Samuel ColinThomas DurtRalph Willox

Since de Broglie’s pilot wave theory was revived by David Bohm in the 1950’s, the overwhelming majority of researchers involved in the field have focused on what is nowadays called de Broglie-Bohm dynamics and de Broglie’s original double solution program was gradually forgotten. As a result, several of the key concepts in the theory are still rather vague and ill-understood. In the light of the progress achieved over the course of the 90 years that have passed since de Broglie’s presentation of his ideas at the Solvay conference of 1927, we reconsider in the present paper the status of the double solution program. More than a somewhat dusty archaeological piece of history of science, we believe it should be considered as a legitimate attempt to reconcile quantum theory with realism.

Authors: C. CurceanuS. BartalucciA. BassiM. BazziS. BertolucciC. BerucciA.M. BragadireanuM. CargnelliA. ClozzaL. De PaolisS. Di MatteoS. DonadiJ-P. EggerC. GuaraldoM. IliescuM. Laubenstein,J. MartonE. MilottiA. PichlerD. PietreanuK. PiscicchiaA. ScordoH. ShiD. SirghiF. SirghiL. Sperandio,O. Vazquez DoceJ. Zmeskal

By performing X-rays measurements in the “cosmic silence” of the underground laboratory of Gran Sasso, LNGS-INFN, we test a basic principle of quantum mechanics: the Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP), for electrons. We present the achieved results of the VIP experiment and the ongoing VIP2 measurement aiming to gain two orders of magnitude improvement in testing PEP. We also use a similar experimental technique to search for radiation (X and gamma) predicted by continuous spontaneous localization models, which aim to solve the “measurement problem”.

Authors: Diederik AertsJonito Aerts ArguellesLester BeltranLyneth BeltranIsaac DistritoMassimiliano Sassoli de BianchiSandro SozzoTomas Veloz

We elaborate a quantum model for corpora of written documents, like the pages forming the World Wide Web. To that end, we are guided by how physicists constructed quantum theory for microscopic entities, which unlike classical objects cannot be fully represented in our spatial theater. We suggest that a similar construction needs to be carried out by linguists and computational scientists, to capture the full meaning content of collections of documental entities. More precisely, we show how to associate a quantum-like ‘entity of meaning’ to a ‘language entity formed by printed documents’, considering the latter as the collection of traces that are left by the former, in specific results of search actions that we describe as measurements. In other words, we offer a perspective where a collection of documents, like the Web, is described as the space of manifestation of a more complex entity – the QWeb – which is the object of our modeling, drawing its inspiration from previous studies on operational-realistic approaches to quantum physics and quantum modeling of human cognition and decision-making. We emphasize that a consistent QWeb model needs to account for the observed correlations between words appearing in printed documents, e.g., co-occurrences, as the latter would depend on the ‘meaning connections’ existing between the concepts that are associated with these words. In that respect, we show that both ‘context and interference (quantum) effects’ are required to explain the probabilities calculated by counting the relative number of documents containing certain words and co-ocurrrences of words.

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