Weekly Papers on Quantum Foundations (5)

Beyond Classification and Prediction: The Promise of Physics-Informed Machine Learning in Astronomy and Cosmology 

from philsciFri Feb 09 2024 22:02:20 (14 hours)# 1.

Meskhidze, Helen (2024) Beyond Classification and Prediction: The Promise of Physics-Informed Machine Learning in Astronomy and Cosmology. [Preprint]

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On the reality of the quantum state once again: A no-go theorem for psi-ontic models? 

from philsciFri Feb 09 2024 22:02:06 (14 hours)# 2.

Gao, Shan (2024) On the reality of the quantum state once again: A no-go theorem for psi-ontic models? [Preprint]

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Non-separability, locality and criteria of reality: a reply to Waegell and McQueen 

from philsciFri Feb 09 2024 22:01:45 (14 hours)# 3.

Faglia, Paolo (2023) Non-separability, locality and criteria of reality: a reply to Waegell and McQueen. [Preprint]

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Causality and a possible interpretation of quantum mechanics 

from quant-ph by Kaixun Tu Qing WangFri Feb 09 2024 11:21:51 (1 day)# 4.

From the ancient Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox to the recent Sorkin-type impossible measurements problem, the contradictions between relativistic causality, quantum non-locality, and quantum measurement have persisted. Our work provides a framework based on quantum field theory to harmoniously integrate these three aspects. This framework consists of causality expressed by reduced density matrices and an interpretation of quantum mechanics that considers quantum mechanics to be complete. Specifically, we utilize reduced density matrices to characterize the local information of the quantum state and demonstrate that they cannot evolve superluminally. Unlike recent approaches focusing on causality, we do not introduce new operators or fields specifically to describe detectors; instead, everything (including detectors, environments, and humans) is composed of the same fundamental fields, leading to complex renormalization. It is precisely these renormalization that prompts us to question the validity of the derivation of quantum paradoxes and lead us to propose a very natural and relativistically compatible interpretation of quantum mechanics.

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Resources of the Quantum World 

from quant-ph by Gilad GourFri Feb 09 2024 11:21:50 (1 day)# 5.

This book delves into the burgeoning field of quantum resource theories, a novel and vibrant area of research within quantum information science that seeks to unify diverse quantum phenomena under a single framework. By recognizing various attributes of physical systems as “resources,” this approach offers a fresh perspective on quantum phenomena, transforming our understanding and application of concepts such as quantum entanglement, coherence, and more. With a focus on the pedagogical, the book aims to equip readers with the advanced mathematical tools and physical principles needed to navigate and contribute to this rapidly evolving field. It covers a wide range of topics, from the foundational aspects of quantum mechanics and quantum information to detailed explorations of specific resource theories, including entanglement, asymmetry, and thermodynamics. Through rigorous mathematical exposition and a unique axiomatic approach, the book provides deep insights into the operational and conceptual frameworks that underpin quantum resource theories, making it an invaluable resource for graduate students, early-career researchers, and anyone interested in the cutting-edge developments in quantum information science.

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Quantum ontology de-naturalized: What we can’t learn from quantum mechanics 

from physics.hist-ph by Raoni Arroyo Jonas R. Becker ArenhartFri Feb 09 2024 11:20:38 (1 day)# 6.

Philosophers of science commonly connect ontology and science, stating that these disciplines maintain a two-way relationship: on the one hand, we can extract ontology from scientific theories; on the other hand, ontology provides the realistic content of our scientific theories. In this article, we will critically examine the process of naturalizing ontology, i.e., confining the work of ontologists merely to the task of pointing out which entities certain theories commit themselves to. We will use non-relativistic quantum mechanics as a case study. We begin by distinguishing two roles for ontology: the first would be characterized by cataloging existing entities according to quantum mechanics; the second would be characterized by establishing more general ontological categories in which existing entities must be classified. We argue that only the first step is available for a naturalistic approach; the second step not being open for determination or anchoring in science. Finally, we also argue that metaphysics is still a step beyond ontology, not contained in either of the two tasks of ontology, being thus even farther from science.

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Are observers reducible to structures? 

from physics.hist-ph by Ovidiu Cristinel StoicaFri Feb 09 2024 11:20:36 (1 day)# 7.

Physical systems are characterized by their structure and dynamics. But the physical laws only express relations, and their symmetries allow any possible relational structure to be also possible in a different parametrization or basis of the state space. If observers were reducible to their structure, observer-like structures from different parametrizations would identify differently the observables with physical properties. They would perceive the same system as being in a different state. This leads to the question: is there a unique correspondence between observables and physical properties, or this correspondence is relative to the parametrization in which the observer-like structure making the observation exists? I show that, if observer-like structures from all parametrizations were observers, their memory of the external world would have no correspondence with the facts, it would be no better than random guess. Since our experience shows that this is not the case, there must be more to the observers than their structure. This implies that the correspondence between observables and physical properties is unique, and it becomes manifest through the observers. This result is independent of the measurement problem, applying to both quantum and classical physics. It has implications for structural realism, philosophy of mind, the foundations of quantum and classical physics, and quantum-first approaches.

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Does $E=mc^2$ Require Relativity? 

from physics.hist-ph by Tony RothmanWed Feb 07 2024 11:04:24 (3 days)# 8.

It is universally believed that with his 1905 paper “Does the inertia of a body depend on its energy content?” Einstein first demonstrated the equivalence of mass and energy by making use of his new special theory of relativity. In the final step of that paper, however, Einstein equates the kinetic energy of a body to its Newtonian value, indicating that his result is at best a low-velocity approximation. Today, several characters debate whether a mid-nineteenth century physicist, employing only Galilean and pre-Maxwellian physics could plausibly arrive at the celebrated result. In other words, is Einsteinian relativity necessary to derive ${\mathcal E}=mc^2$?

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Towards a process-based approach to consciousness and collapse in quantum mechanics 

from physics.hist-ph by Raoni Arroyo Lauro de Matos Nunes Filho Frederik Moreira dos SantosWed Feb 07 2024 11:04:23 (3 days)# 9.

According to a particular interpretation of quantum mechanics, the causal role of human consciousness in the measuring process is called upon to solve a foundational problem called the “measurement problem”. Traditionally, this interpretation is tied up with the metaphysics of substance dualism. As such, this interpretation of quantum mechanics inherits the dualist’s mind-body problem. Our working hypothesis is that a process-based approach to the consciousness causes collapse interpretation (CCCI) — leaning on Whitehead’s solution to the mind-body problem — offers a better metaphysical understanding of consciousness and its role in interpreting quantum mechanics. This article is the kickoff for such a research program in the metaphysics of science.

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Quantum panprotopsychism and the combination problem 

from philsciWed Feb 07 2024 01:04:34 (3 days)# 10.

Gambini, Rodolfo and Pullin, Jorge (2023) Quantum panprotopsychism and the combination problem. [Preprint]

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Why even specialists struggle with black hole proofs 

from nature-physics by Alejandro Penuela DiazTue Feb 06 2024 19:00:00 (3 days)# 11.

Nature Physics, Published online: 07 February 2024; doi:10.1038/s41567-024-02398-zMathematical proofs of black hole physics are becoming too complex even for specialists.

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Loophole-free Bell tests with randomly chosen subsets of measurement settings 

from PRA – fundamentalconcepts by Jaskaran Singh and Adán CabelloTue Feb 06 2024 05:00:00 (4 days)# 12.

Author(s): Jaskaran Singh and Adán Cabello

There are bipartite quantum nonlocal correlations requiring very low detection efficiency to reach the loophole-free regime but that need too many measurement settings to be practical for actual experiments. This leads to the general problem of what can be concluded about loophole-free Bell nonlocal…

[Phys. Rev. A 109, 022204] Published Tue Feb 06, 2024

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Bohmian mechanics as Cartesian science 

from philsciTue Feb 06 2024 02:14:36 (4 days)# 13.

Esfeld, Michael (2024) Bohmian mechanics as Cartesian science. [Preprint]

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A new theory of quasi-sets without atoms: a reply to Adonai Sant’Anna 

from philsciSun Feb 04 2024 17:37:01 (5 days)# 14.

Krause, Décio (2024) A new theory of quasi-sets without atoms: a reply to Adonai Sant’Anna. [Preprint]

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Quantizing Galilean spacetime – A reconstruction of Maxwell’s equations in empty space 

from philsciSun Feb 04 2024 05:40:35 (6 days)# 15.

Klein, Ulf (2023) Quantizing Galilean spacetime – A reconstruction of Maxwell’s equations in empty space. [Preprint]

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