Volume 9, Issue 4, pages 211-220
Quantum entanglement is a unique property of quantum systems, where the states of two particles become correlated in such a way that the state of one particle cannot be described independently of the other. Entangled quantum systems can connect to the environment via a Bell state measurement. This applies, for example, to teleportation and entanglement swapping. Although the results are well understood, it is not entirely clear whether they involve nonlocal action or whether they are predetermined because quantum mechanics does not provide this information. The best way to clarify this is to use a model, provided that it predicts the key measurement results. Models based on the fact that the partners of an entangled pair have the same value of a statistical parameter cannot be applied here. This is because the partner particles of the resulting entangled states after a teleportation or an entanglement swapping never had contact before. The question then is, what connects entangled photons? Therefore, this paper presents a local realistic model that reproduces the quantum mechanical predictions for expectation values with polarization measurements, but is not based on shared statistical parameters. Instead, the coupling of the entangled particles is based on initial conditions and conservation of spin angular momentum. The model refutes Bell’s theorem and also explains teleportation and entanglement swapping in a local way. It is also shown which error in Bell’s derivation leads to Bell’s inequality failing to correctly describe the relationships between expectation values from quantum mechanics. The manuscript is thus a step forward toward a complete theory describing quantum physical reality as thought possible by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen.