Weekly Papers on Quantum Foundations (51)

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PRL: General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

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Finn Schmolke and Eric Lutz

Fri Dec 16 2022 18:00:00 (1 day)

# 1.

Author(s): Finn Schmolke and Eric Lutz

Noise-induced synchronization can occur in the quantum regime as well as the classical, and by applying noise to a single spin in an arbitrarily long chain, one can synchronize the entire chain.

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 129, 250601] Published Fri Dec 16, 2022

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Fri Dec 16 2022 07:33:45 (2 days)

# 2.

Lorenzetti, Lorenzo (2022) Two Forms of Functional Reductionism in Physics. [Preprint]

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Fri Dec 16 2022 07:30:22 (2 days)

# 3.

Pruss, Alexander R. (2022) Strict Dominance and Symmetry. [Preprint]

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Jonah Kudler-Flam, Yuya Kusuki

Thu Dec 15 2022 11:09:31 (2 days)

# 4.

While recent progress in the black hole information problem has shown that the entropy of Hawking radiation follows a unitary Page curve, the quantum state of Hawking radiation prior the Page time is still treated as purely thermal, containing no information about the microstructure of the black hole. We demonstrate that there is significant quantum information regarding the quantum state of the black hole in the Hawking radiation prior to the Page time. By computing of the quantum fidelity in a 2D boundary conformal field theory (BCFT) model of black hole evaporation, we demonstrate that an observer outside of an evaporating black hole may distinguish different black holes via measurements of the Hawking radiation at \textit{any} time during the evaporation process, albeit with an exponentially large number of measurements. Furthermore, our results are universal, applicable to general BCFTs including those with large central charge and rational BCFTs. The techniques we develop for computing the fidelity are more generally applicable to excited states in CFT. As such, we are able to characterize more general aspects of thermalization in 2D conformal field theory.

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Huw Price, Ken Wharton

Thu Dec 15 2022 11:09:30 (2 days)

# 5.

We propose a mechanism for quantum entanglement. The key ingredient is the familiar statistical phenomenon of collider bias, or Berkson’s bias. In the language of causal models a collider is a variable causally influenced by two or more other variables. Conditioning on a collider typically produces non-causal associations between its contributing causes, even if they are actually independent. It is easy to show that this phenomenon can produce associations analogous to Bell correlations, in suitable post-selected ensembles. It is also straightforward that such collider artefacts may become real connections, resembling causality, if a collider is ‘constrained’ (e.g., by a future boundary condition). We consider the time-reversed analogues of these points in the context of retrocausal models of QM. Retrocausality yields a collider at the source of an EPR-Bell particle pair, and in this case constraint of the collider is possible by normal methods of experimental preparation. It follows that connections resembling causality may be expected to emerge across such colliders, from one branch of the experiment to the other. Our hypothesis is that this constrained retrocausal collider bias is the origin of entanglement. The piece is written for a general audience, and is based on a suggestion first made in arXiv:2101.05370 [quant-ph].

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Francisco Tello-Ortiz, B.Mishra, A. Alvarez, Ksh. Newton Singh

Thu Dec 15 2022 11:09:29 (2 days)

# 6.

In this article, new wormhole solutions in the framework of General Relativity are presented. Taking advantage of gravitational decoupling by means of minimal geometric deformation approach and, the so-called noncommutative geometry Gaussian and Lorentzian density profiles, the seminal Morris-Thorne space-time is minimally deformed providing new asymptotically wormhole solutions. Constraining the signature of some parameters, the dimensionless constant $\alpha$ is bounded using the flare-out and energy conditions. In both cases, this results in an energy-momentum tensor that violates energy conditions, thus the space-time is threading by exotic matter. However, it is possible to obtain a positive defined density at the wormhole throat and its neighborhood. To further support the study a thoroughly graphical analysis has been performed.

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Chris Stevens, Oliver Markwell

Thu Dec 15 2022 11:09:28 (2 days)

# 7.

Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC) is a cyclic model of the universe put forward by Sir Roger Penrose. A conformal invariance assumption in the neighbourhood of the crossover region between cycles (which Penrose calls aeons) allows successive space-times to be related by a conformal rescaling. A major open problem is how to choose the conformal factor in a unique way, and is a fundamental hurdle to further study. Proposals have been put forward by Newman, Tod and Nurowski, but they disagree in one way or another with Penrose’s original assumptions as well as each other. In this paper we compare these different models in detail and rule out certain choices for the conformal factor that have been put forward by Penrose. We extend the results of Newman and fix inconsistencies that arose in his calculations. A new class of solutions are put forward which agree with Penrose’s assumptions exactly so long as a certain additional relation is satisfied. We also correct a CCC solution presented by Nurowski.

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P. J. Bussey

Thu Dec 15 2022 11:09:27 (2 days)

# 8.

A detailed consideration of the Klein-Gordon equation in relativistic quantum mechanics is presented in order to offer more clarity than many standard approaches. The equation is frequently employed in the research literature, even though problems have often been raised regarding its second-order nature, the status of its negative-energy solutions and the formulation of particle density and flux. Most of these problems can be avoided by dismissing the negative-energy solutions. An application of the equation to a broad wave-packet shows that a small amendment to the usual relativistic formalism can be helpful to demonstrate continuity with the non-relativistic case, although difficulties remain when the proposed quantum state has a broad relativistic energy distribution.

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Ahmed Roman, Asem Hassan, Mohamed ElKabbash

Thu Dec 15 2022 11:09:26 (2 days)

# 9.

Gravity is the weakest of all known forces. Measuring the gravitational force of micro and nano-scale source masses is an essential first step toward low-energy quantum gravity tests and searching for non-Newtonian gravity forces. Here, we propose an experiment using two optically trapped particles where the source mass is $\geq 10 fg$. In the proposed experiment, the optically levitated source mass is a rotating Janus particle leading to an amplified periodic oscillation of the test mass near resonance between Janus particle rotation frequency and the natural frequency of the test-mass trap. By tracking the motion of the test mass, it is possible to reach a signal-to-noise ratio greater than one for a Janus particle with a $100 nm$ radius within existing experimental capabilities of current levitation optodynamics experiments. The proposed experiment extends the search of Yukawa corrections to gravity down to $10^{-6}$ times gravity and opens the door to low energy tests for quantum gravity.

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Lorenzo Iorio

Thu Dec 15 2022 11:09:15 (2 days)

# 10.

Recently, Will calculated an additional contribution to the Mercury’s precession of the longitude of perihelion $\varpi$ of the order of $\dot\varpi_\textrm{W}\simeq 0.22$ $\textrm{milliarcseconds per century}$ ($\textrm{mas cty}^{-1}$). It is partly a direct consequence of certain 1pN third-body accelerations entering the planetary equations of motion, and partly an indirect, mixed effect due to the simultaneous interplay of the standard 1pN pointlike acceleration of the primary with the Newtonian $N$-body acceleration, to the quadrupole order, in the analytical calculation of the secular perihelion precession with the Gauss equations. We critically discuss the actual measurability of the mixed effects with respect to direct ones. The current uncertainties in either the magnitude of the Sun’s angular momentum $S_\odot$ and the orientation of its spin axis ${\boldsymbol{\hat{S}}}_\odot$ impact the precessions $\dot\varpi_{J_2^\odot},~\dot\varpi_\textrm{LT}$ induced by the Sun’s quadrupole mass moment and angular momentum via the Lense-Thirring effect to a level which makes almost impossible to measure $\dot\varpi_\textrm{W}$ even in the hypothesis that it comes entirely from the aforementioned 1pN third-body accelerations. On the other hand, from the point of view of the Lense-Thirring effect itself, the mismodeled quadrupolar precession $\delta\dot\varpi_{J_2^\odot}$ due to the uncertainties in ${\boldsymbol{\hat{S}}}_\odot$ corresponds to a bias of $\simeq 9\%$ of the relativistic one. The resulting simulated mismodeled range and range-rate times series of BepiColombo are at about the per cent level of the nominal gravitomagnetic ones.

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Thu Dec 15 2022 04:31:53 (3 days)

# 11.

Mitsch, Chris and Freeborn, David Peter Wallis and Gilton, Marian (2022) How Haag-tied is QFT, really? [Preprint]

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Zhi-Wei Wang, Samuel L. Braunstein

Wed Dec 14 2022 10:07:16 (3 days)

# 12.

Random sampling in high dimensions has successfully been applied to phenomena as diverse as nuclear resonances, neural networks and black hole evaporation. Here we revisit an elegant argument by the British physicist Dennis Sciama, which demonstrated that were our universe random, it would almost certainly have a negligible chance for life. Under plausible assumptions, we show that a random universe can masquerade as `intelligently designed,’ with the fundamental constants instead appearing to be fined tuned to achieve the highest probability for life to occur. For our universe, this mechanism may only require there to be around a dozen currently unknown fundamental constants. More generally, this mechanism appears to be important for data science analysis on constrained sets. Finally, we consider wider applications.

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Dimitry Leites

Wed Dec 14 2022 10:07:15 (3 days)

# 13.

Selected stories about the life of A. L. Onishchik, and a review of his contribution to the classification of non-split supermanifolds, in particular, supercurves a.k.a. superstrings; his editorial and educational work. A brief overview of his and his students’ results in supersymmetry, and their impact on other researchers.

Several open problems growing out of Onishchik’s research are presented, some of them are related with odd parameters of deformations and non-holonomic structures of supermanifolds important in physical models, such as Minkowski superspaces and certain superstrings.

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Wed Dec 14 2022 02:48:17 (4 days)

# 14.

Kareem Khalifa, Kareem and Lawler, Insa and Shech, Elay (2022) Introduction to the edited volume “Scientific Understanding and Representation: Modeling in the Physical Sciences”. Scientific Understanding and Representation: Modeling in the Physical Sciences.

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Olival Freire Junior

Tue Dec 13 2022 11:10:14 (4 days)

# 15.

Alain Aspect’s three experiments on Bell’s theorem, published in the early 1980s, were a turning point in the history of the research on the foundations of quantum mechanics not only because they corroborated entanglement as the distinctive quantum signature but also because these experiments brought wider recognition to this field of research and Aspect himself. These experiments may be considered the most direct precursors of the research on quantum information, which would blossom a decade later.

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Juliano C. S. Neves

Tue Dec 13 2022 11:10:13 (4 days)

# 16.

There have been three geometrizations in history. The first one is historically due to the Pythagorean school and Plato, the second one comes from Galileo, Kepler, Descartes and Newton, and the third is Einstein’s geometrization of nature. The term geometrization of nature means the conception according to which nature (with its different meanings) is massively described by using geometry. In this article, I focus on the third geometrization, in which the black hole shadow phenomenon provides an interesting statement about the level of geometrization achieved by the theory of general relativity. With the black hole shadow described by the Einsteinian theory, the geometrical interpretation of nature relates shape to dynamics or, more specifically, the shadow silhouette to the angular momentum, regardless the matter content inside the black hole. As a consequence, spacetime symmetry could play the role of the formal cause in black hole physics.

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Mon Dec 12 2022 10:35:35 (5 days)

# 17.

Dumitru, Spiridon (2005) On the uncertainty relations and quantum measurements: conventionalities, shortcomings, reconsiderations. [Preprint]

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Nature Physics

by

Aihong Tang

Mon Dec 12 2022 08:00:00 (6 days)

# 18.

Nature Physics, Published online: 12 December 2022; doi:10.1038/s41567-022-01821-7

A potential observation of low-energy antihelium-3 nuclei would have profound impacts on our understanding of the Galaxy. Experiments at particle colliders help us understand how cosmic antimatter travels over long distances before reaching Earth.