Weekly Papers on Quantum Foundations (46)

Objective trajectories in hybrid classical-quantum dynamics. (arXiv:2011.06009v1 [quant-ph])

上午9:32|Jonathan Oppenheim, Carlo Sparaciari, Barbara Šoda, Zachary Weller-Davies|quant-ph updates on arXiv.org

Consistent dynamics which couples classical and quantum degrees of freedom exists, provided it is stochastic. This provides a way to study the back-reaction of quantum fields on space-time which does not suffer from the pathologies of the semi-classical equations. Here we introduce several toy models in which to study hybrid classical-quantum evolution, including a qubit coupled to a particle in a potential, and a quantum harmonic oscillator coupled to a classical one. We present an unravelling approach to calculate the dynamics. Unlike the purely quantum case, the trajectories (or histories) of this unravelling can be unique, conditioned on the classical degrees of freedom. This provides a potential solution to the “measurement problem” of quantum theory; quantum systems become classical because they interact with a genuinely classical field.

An Argument for Strong Positivity of the Decoherence Functional. (arXiv:2011.06120v1 [quant-ph])

上午9:32|Fay Dowker, Henry Wilkes|quant-ph updates on arXiv.org

We give an argument for strong positivity of the decoherence functional as the correct, physical positivity condition in formulations of quantum theory based fundamentally on the path integral. We extend to infinite systems work by Boes and Navascues that shows that the set of strongly positive quantum systems is maximal amongst sets of systems that are closed under tensor product composition. We show further that the set of strongly positive quantum systems is the unique set that is maximal amongst sets that are closed under tensor product composition.

Prospects and challenges of quantum finance. (arXiv:2011.06492v1 [q-fin.CP])

上午9:32|Adam Bouland, Wim van Dam, Hamed Joorati, Iordanis Kerenidis, Anupam Prakash|quant-ph updates on arXiv.org

Quantum computers are expected to have substantial impact on the finance industry, as they will be able to solve certain problems considerably faster than the best known classical algorithms. In this article we describe such potential applications of quantum computing to finance, starting with the state-of-the-art and focusing in particular on recent works by the QC Ware team. We consider quantum speedups for Monte Carlo methods, portfolio optimization, and machine learning. For each application we describe the extent of quantum speedup possible and estimate the quantum resources required to achieve a practical speedup. The near-term relevance of these quantum finance algorithms varies widely across applications – some of them are heuristic algorithms designed to be amenable to near-term prototype quantum computers, while others are proven speedups which require larger-scale quantum computers to implement. We also describe powerful ways to bring these speedups closer to experimental feasibility – in particular describing lower depth algorithms for Monte Carlo methods and quantum machine learning, as well as quantum annealing heuristics for portfolio optimization. This article is targeted at financial professionals and no particular background in quantum computation is assumed.

Incompatibility in general probabilistic theories, generalized spectrahedra, and tensor norms. (arXiv:2011.06497v1 [quant-ph])

上午9:32|Andreas Bluhm, Anna Jenčová, Ion Nechita|quant-ph updates on arXiv.org

In this work, we investigate measurement incompatibility in general probabilistic theories (GPTs). We show several equivalent characterizations of compatible measurements. The first is in terms of the positivity of associated maps. The second relates compatibility to the inclusion of certain generalized spectrahedra. For this, we extend the theory of free spectrahedra to ordered vector spaces. The third characterization connects the compatibility of dichotomic measurements to the ratio of tensor crossnorms of Banach spaces. We use these characterizations to study the amount of incompatibility present in different GPTs, i.e. their compatibility regions. For centrally symmetric GPTs, we show that the compatibility degree is given as the ratio of the injective and the projective norm of the tensor product of associated Banach spaces. This allows us to completely characterize the compatibility regions of several GPTs, and to obtain optimal universal bounds on the compatibility degree in terms of the 1-summing constants of the associated Banach spaces. Moreover, we find new bounds on the maximal incompatibility present in more than three qubit measurements.

Three noncontextual hidden variable models for the Peres-Mermin square. (arXiv:2011.06508v1 [quant-ph])

上午9:32|Gábor Hofer-Szabó|quant-ph updates on arXiv.org

I will argue that the Peres-Mermin square does not necessarily rule out a value-definite (deterministic) noncontextual hidden variable model if the operators are not given a physical interpretation satisfying the following two requirements: (i) each operator is uniquely realized by a single physical measurement; (ii) commuting operators are realized by simultaneous measurements. To underpin this claim, I will construct three hidden variable models for three different physical realizations of the Peres-Mermin square: one violating (i), another violating (ii), and a third one violating both (i) and (ii).

Toward simulating Superstring/M-theory on a quantum computer. (arXiv:2011.06573v1 [hep-th])

上午9:32|Hrant Gharibyan, Masanori Hanada, Masazumi Honda, Junyu Liu|quant-ph updates on arXiv.org

We present a novel framework for simulating matrix models on a quantum computer. Supersymmetric matrix models have natural applications to superstring/M-theory and gravitational physics, in an appropriate limit of parameters. Furthermore, for certain states in the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase (BMN) matrix model, several supersymmetric quantum field theories dual to superstring/M-theory can be realized on a quantum device. Our prescription consists of four steps: regularization of the Hilbert space, adiabatic state preparation, simulation of real-time dynamics, and measurements. Regularization is performed for the BMN matrix model with the introduction of energy cut-off via the truncation in the Fock space. We use the Wan-Kim algorithm for fast digital adiabatic state preparation to prepare the low-energy eigenstates of this model as well as thermofield double state. Then, we provide an explicit construction for simulating real-time dynamics utilizing techniques of block-encoding, qubitization, and quantum signal processing. Lastly, we present a set of measurements and experiments that can be carried out on a quantum computer to further our understanding of superstring/M-theory beyond analytic results.

Combined Lorentz symmetry. (arXiv:2011.06466v1 [gr-qc])

上午9:32|gr-qc updates on arXiv.org

Authors: G.E. Volovik

This is the comment to the paper by S.N. Vergeles, A note on the vacuum structure of lattice Euclidean quantum gravity: birth of macroscopic space-time and $PT$-symmetry breaking, arXiv:1903.09957, where the gravitational tetrads are considered as the order parameter of the symmetry breaking in the quantum vacuum. We discuss some consequences of this approach.

Emergence of classical behavior in the early universe. (arXiv:2004.10684v3 [gr-qc] UPDATED)

上午9:32|gr-qc updates on arXiv.org

Authors: Abhay AshtekarAlejandro CorichiAruna Kesavan

We investigate three issues that have been discussed in the context of inflation: Fading of the importance of quantum non-commutativity; the phenomenon of quantum squeezing; and the ability to approximate the quantum state by a distribution function on the classical phase space. In the standard treatments, these features arise from properties of mode functions of quantum fields in (near) de Sitter space-time. Therefore, the three notions are often assumed to be essentially equivalent, representing different facets of the same phenomenon. We analyze them in general Friedmann-Lemaitre- Robertson-Walker space-times, through the lens of geometric structures on the classical phase space. The analysis shows that: (i) inflation does not play an essential role; classical behavior can emerge much more generally; (ii) the three notions are conceptually distinct; classicality can emerge in one sense but not in another; and, (iii) the third notion is realized in a surprisingly strong sense; there is exact equality between completely general $n$-point functions in the classical theory and those in the quantum theory, provided the quantum operators are Weyl ordered. These features arise already for linear cosmological perturbations by themselves: considerations such as mode-mode coupling, decoherence, and measurement theory –although important in their own right– are not needed for emergence of classical behavior in any of the three senses discussed. Generality of the results stems from the fact that they can be traced back to geometrical structures on the classical phase space, available in a wide class of systems. Therefore, this approach may also be useful in other contexts.

Separating Einstein’s separability

上午9:32|ScienceDirect Publication: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern PhysicsScienceDirect RSShttps://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/studies-in-history-and-philosophy-of-science-part-b-studies-in-history-and-philosophy-of-modern-physicsRSS for NodeWed, 24 Jul 2019 09:46:42 GMTCopyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reservedImprints of the underlying structure of physical theoriesPublication date: Available online 12 July 2019Source: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern PhysicsAuthor(s): Jorge ManeroAbstractIn the context of scientific realism, this paper intends to provide a formal and accurate description of the structural-based ontology posited by classical mechanics, quantum mechanics and special relativity, which is preserved across the empirical domains of these theories and explain their successful predictions. Along the lines of ontic structural realism, such a description is undertaken by

Publication date: Available online 12 November 2020

Source: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics

Author(s): Sebastián Murgueitio Ramírez

Observing Localization in a 2D Quasicrystalline Optical Lattice

2020年11月13日 星期五 下午6:00|Matteo Sbroscia, Konrad Viebahn, Edward Carter, Jr-Chiun Yu, Alexander Gaunt, and Ulrich Schneider|PRL: General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

Author(s): Matteo Sbroscia, Konrad Viebahn, Edward Carter, Jr-Chiun Yu, Alexander Gaunt, and Ulrich Schneider

Quasicrystals are long-range ordered but not periodic, representing an interesting middle ground between order and disorder. We experimentally and numerically study the localization transition in the ground state of noninteracting and weakly interacting bosons in an eightfold symmetric quasicrystall…

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 200604] Published Fri Nov 13, 2020

No facts without perspectives

2020年11月13日 星期五 下午5:55|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Glauer, Ramiro and Hildebrandt, Frauke (2020) No facts without perspectives. [Preprint]

On the Imprecision of Full Conditional Probabilities

2020年11月13日 星期五 下午5:53|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Wheeler, Gregory and Cozman, Fabio (2020) On the Imprecision of Full Conditional Probabilities. [Preprint]

Credence—and Chance—Without Numbers (and with the Euclidean Property)

2020年11月11日 星期三 下午6:07|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Maudlin, Tim (2020) Credence—and Chance—Without Numbers (and with the Euclidean Property). [Preprint]

The Problem of Molecular Structure Just Is The Measurement Problem

2020年11月11日 星期三 下午6:06|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Franklin, Alexander and Seifert, Vanessa A. (2020) The Problem of Molecular Structure Just Is The Measurement Problem. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. ISSN 1464-3537

An Assumption in the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

2020年11月11日 星期三 下午6:05|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Price, Huw (1978) An Assumption in the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. [Preprint]

The modal status of the laws of nature. Tahko’s hybrid view and the kinematical/dynamical distinction.

2020年11月11日 星期三 下午6:04|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Hirèche, Salim and Linnemann, Niels and Michels, Robert and Vogt, Lisa (2020) The modal status of the laws of nature. Tahko’s hybrid view and the kinematical/dynamical distinction. [Preprint]

Book Review: French, S., & Saatsi, J. (Eds.). (2020). Scientific Realism and the Quantum. Oxford University Press

2020年11月11日 星期三 下午6:03|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Glick, David (2020) Book Review: French, S., & Saatsi, J. (Eds.). (2020). Scientific Realism and the Quantum. Oxford University Press. [Preprint]

Indeterminism in Physics and Intuitionistic Mathematics

2020年11月10日 星期二 上午6:14|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Gisin, Nicolas (2020) Indeterminism in Physics and Intuitionistic Mathematics. [Preprint]

Correction to: Fundamental mentality in a physical world

2020年11月9日 星期一 上午8:00|Latest Results for Synthese

The original article has been corrected.

How (not) to judge a theory of causation

2020年11月9日 星期一 上午8:00|Latest Results for Synthese

Abstract

Philosophical theories of causation are commonly judged by their ability to correctly determine whether there is a causal relation present in intuitively clear example scenarios. If the theories survive this test, they are then used to answer big philosophical questions about causation. This Method of Examples is attractive because it seems to allow us to determine the quality of a theory of causation independently of answering the big philosophical questions; which is good, since it means that we can then non-circularly use the theories judged to be best to answer those questions. However, the current article argues that this virtue of the Method of Examples is an illusion. In particular, I argue that the necessary step of judging whether a proposed analysis of causation is reductive can only be taken after many of the most vexing philosophical questions about causation have already been answered. It is then shown that a rejection of the methodological supremacy of the Method of Examples leads to a more pluralistic method of judging theories of causation, a pluralism that benefits non-standard approaches like interventionism and agency theories.

The substantial role of Weyl symmetry in deriving general relativity from string theory

2020年11月9日 星期一 上午4:18|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Dougherty, John (2020) The substantial role of Weyl symmetry in deriving general relativity from string theory. In: UNSPECIFIED.

Clarifying the New Problem for Quantum Mechanics: Reply to Vaidman

2020年11月9日 星期一 上午4:15|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Meehan, Alexander (2020) Clarifying the New Problem for Quantum Mechanics: Reply to Vaidman. [Preprint]

Quantum Physics in Non-Separable Hilbert Spaces

2020年11月9日 星期一 上午4:12|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Earman, John S (2020) Quantum Physics in Non-Separable Hilbert Spaces. [Preprint]

Absolute Velocities Are Unmeasurable: Response to Middleton and Murgueitio Ramírez

2020年11月9日 星期一 上午4:11|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Jacobs, Caspar (2020) Absolute Velocities Are Unmeasurable: Response to Middleton and Murgueitio Ramírez. [Preprint]

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