上午8:00 | | | Latest Results for Foundations of Physics |

### Abstract

Bohm developed the Bohmian mechanics (BM), in which the Schrödinger equation is transformed into two differential equations: a continuity equation and an equation of motion similar to the Newtonian equation of motion. This transformation can be executed both for single-particle systems and for many-particle systems. Later, Kuzmenkov and Maksimov used basic quantum mechanics for the derivation of many-particle quantum hydrodynamics (MPQHD) including one differential equation for the mass balance and two differential equations for the momentum balance, and we extended their analysis in a prework (K. Renziehausen, I. Barth in Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2018:013A05, 2018) for the case that the particle ensemble consists of different particle sorts. The purpose of this paper is to show how the differential equations of MPQHD can be derived for such a particle ensemble with the differential equations of BM as a starting point. Moreover, our discussion clarifies that the differential equations of MPQHD are more suitable for an analysis of many-particle systems than the differential equations of BM because the differential equations of MPQHD depend on a single position vector only while the differential equations of BM depend on the complete set of all particle coordinates.

上午8:00 | | | Latest Results for Foundations of Physics |

### Abstract

This paper argues that the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics suggests a form of holism for which the whole (total ensemble of paths) has properties that are not strongly reducible to the properties of the parts (the single trajectories). Feynman’s sum over histories calculates the probability amplitude of a particle moving within a boundary by summing over all the possible trajectories that the particle can undertake. These trajectories and their individual probability amplitudes are thus necessary in calculating the total amplitude. However, not all possible trajectories are differentiable, thus suggesting that they are not physical possibilities, but only mathematical entities. It follows that if the possible differentiable trajectories are taken to be part of the physical system, they are not sufficient to calculate the total probability amplitude. The conclusion is that the total ensemble is weakly non-supervenient upon the physically possible trajectories.

上午8:00 | | | Latest Results for Foundations of Physics |

### Abstract

We propose a Quantum Field Theory description of beams on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer and apply the method to describe Interaction Free Measurements (IFMs), concluding that there is a change of momentum of the fields in IFMs. Analysing the factors involved in the probability of emission of low-energy photons, we argue that they do not yield meaningful contributions to the probabilities of the IFMs.

上午8:00 | | | Latest Results for Foundations of Physics |

### Abstract

An analysis is presented of the possible existence of the second anomalous dipole moment of Dirac’s particle next to the one associated with the angular momentum. It includes a discussion why, in spite of his own derivation, Dirac has doubted about its relevancy. It is shown why since then it has been overlooked and why it has vanished from leading textbooks. A critical survey is given on the reasons of its reject, including the failure of attempts to measure and the perceived violations of time reversal symmetry and charge–parity symmetry. It is emphasized that the anomalous electric dipole moment of the pointlike electron (AEDM) is fundamentally different from the quantum field type electric dipole moment of an electron (eEDM) as defined in the standard model of particle physics. The analysis has resulted into the identification of a third type Dirac particle, next to the electron type and the Majorana particle. It is shown that, unlike as in the case of the electron type, its second anomalous dipole moment is real valued and is therefore subject to polarization in a scalar potential field. Examples are given that it may have a possible impact in the nuclear domain and in the gravitational domain.

上午8:00 | | | Latest Results for Foundations of Physics |

### Abstract

Measurements are shown to be processes designed to return figures: they are *effective*. This effectivity allows for a formalization as Turing machines, which can be described employing computation theory. Inspired in the *halting problem* we draw some limitations for measurement procedures: procedures that verify if a quantity is measured cannot work in every case.

上午8:00 | | | Latest Results for Foundations of Physics |

### Abstract

The formalism of general probabilistic theories provides a universal paradigm that is suitable for describing various physical systems including classical and quantum ones as particular cases. Contrary to the usual no-restriction hypothesis, the set of accessible meters within a given theory can be limited for different reasons, and this raises a question of what restrictions on meters are operationally relevant. We argue that all operational restrictions must be closed under simulation, where the simulation scheme involves mixing and classical post-processing of meters. We distinguish three classes of such operational restrictions: restrictions on meters originating from restrictions on effects; restrictions on meters that do not restrict the set of effects in any way; and all other restrictions. We fully characterize the first class of restrictions and discuss its connection to convex effect subalgebras. We show that the restrictions belonging to the second class can impose severe physical limitations despite the fact that all effects are accessible, which takes place, e.g., in the unambiguous discrimination of pure quantum states via effectively dichotomic meters. We further demonstrate that there are physically meaningful restrictions that fall into the third class. The presented study of operational restrictions provides a better understanding on how accessible measurements modify general probabilistic theories and quantum theory in particular.

下午1:47 | | | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited. |

上午9:51 | | | P.G.L. Porta Mana | | | quant-ph updates on arXiv.org |

In a recent manuscript, Gelman & Yao (2020) claim that “the usual rules of conditional probability fail in the quantum realm” and purport to support that statement with the example of a quantum double-slit experiment. The present note recalls some relevant literature in quantum theory and shows that (i) Gelman & Yao’s statement is false; in fact, their quantum example confirms the rules of probability theory; (ii) the particular inequality found in the quantum example can be shown to appear also in very non-quantum examples, such as drawing from an urn; thus there is nothing peculiar to quantum theory in this matter. A couple of wrong or imprecise statements about quantum theory in the cited manuscript are also corrected.

上午9:51 | | | ScienceDirect Publication: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern PhysicsScienceDirect RSShttps://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/studies-in-history-and-philosophy-of-science-part-b-studies-in-history-and-philosophy-of-modern-physicsRSS for NodeWed, 24 Jul 2019 09:46:42 GMTCopyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reservedImprints of the underlying structure of physical theoriesPublication date: Available online 12 July 2019Source: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern PhysicsAuthor(s): Jorge ManeroAbstractIn the context of scientific realism, this paper intends to provide a formal and accurate description of the structural-based ontology posited by classical mechanics, quantum mechanics and special relativity, which is preserved across the empirical domains of these theories and explain their successful predictions. Along the lines of ontic structural realism, such a description is undertaken by |

Publication date: Available online 15 July 2020

**Source:** Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics

Author(s): Elliott D. Chen

上午9:51 | | | ScienceDirect Publication: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern PhysicsScienceDirect RSShttps://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/studies-in-history-and-philosophy-of-science-part-b-studies-in-history-and-philosophy-of-modern-physicsRSS for NodeWed, 24 Jul 2019 09:46:42 GMTCopyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reservedImprints of the underlying structure of physical theoriesPublication date: Available online 12 July 2019Source: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern PhysicsAuthor(s): Jorge ManeroAbstractIn the context of scientific realism, this paper intends to provide a formal and accurate description of the structural-based ontology posited by classical mechanics, quantum mechanics and special relativity, which is preserved across the empirical domains of these theories and explain their successful predictions. Along the lines of ontic structural realism, such a description is undertaken by |

Publication date: Available online 11 July 2020

**Source:** Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics

Author(s): Claudio Calosi, Cristian Mariani

上午9:51 | | | gr-qc updates on arXiv.org |

Authors: Djuna Croon, Samuel D. McDermott, Jeremy Sakstein

We demonstrate the power of the black hole mass gap as a novel probe of fundamental physics. New light particles that couple to the Standard Model can act as an additional source of energy loss in the cores of population-III stars, dramatically altering their evolution. We investigate the effects of two paradigmatic weakly coupled, low-mass particles, axions and hidden photons, and find that the pulsational pair instability, which causes a substantial amount of mass loss, is suppressed. As a result, it is possible to form black holes of $72\msun$ or heavier, deep inside the black hole mass gap predicted by the Standard Model. The upper edge of the mass gap is raised to $>130{\rm M}_\odot$, implying that heavier black holes, anticipated to be observed after LIGO’s sensitivity is upgraded, would also be impacted. In contrast, thermally produced heavy particles would remain in the core, leading to the tantalizing possibility that they drive a new instability akin to the electron-positron pair instability. We investigate this effect analytically and find that stars that avoid the electron-positron pair instability could experience this new instability. We discuss our results in light of current and upcoming gravitational wave interferometer detections of binary black hole mergers.

上午9:51 | | | gr-qc updates on arXiv.org |

Authors: Marios Christodoulou, Andrea Di Biagio, Pierre Martin-Dussaud

Time at the Planck scale ($\sim 10^{-44}~\mathrm{s}$) is an unexplored physical regime. It is widely believed that probing Planck time will remain for long an impossible task. Yet, we propose an experiment to test the discreteness of time at the Planck scale and show that it is not far removed from current technological capabilities.

上午9:51 | | | gr-qc updates on arXiv.org |

Authors: Henriette Elvang

This article is an introduction to two currently very active research programs, the Conformal Bootstrap and Scattering Amplitudes. Rather than attempting full surveys, the emphasis is on common ideas and methods shared by these two seemingly very different programs. In both fields, mathematical and physical constraints are placed directly on the physical observables in order to explore the landscape of possible consistent quantum field theories. We give explicit examples from both programs: the reader can expect to encounter boiling water, ferromagnets, pion scattering, and emergent symmetries on this journey into the landscape of local relativistic quantum field theories. The first part is written for a general physics audience. The second part includes further details, including a new on-shell bottom-up reconstruction of the $\mathbb{CP}^1$ model with the Fubini-Study metric arising from re-summation of the $n$-point interaction terms derived from amplitudes.

2020年7月17日 星期五 下午3:55 | | | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited. |

2020年7月17日 星期五 上午8:00 | | | Latest Results for Foundations of Physics |

### Abstract

One of the most striking features of the epistemological situation of Quantum Mechanics is the number of interpretations and the many schools of thought, with no consensus on the way to understand the theory. In this article, I introduce a distinction between orthodox interpretations and heterodox interpretations of Quantum Mechanics: the orthodox interpretations preserve all the quantum principles while the heterodox interpretations replace at least one of them. Then, I argue that we have strong empirical and epistemological reasons to prefer orthodox interpretations to heterodox interpretations. The first argument is that all the experiments on the foundations of Quantum Mechanics give a high degree of corroboration to the quantum principles and, consequently, to the orthodox interpretations. The second argument is that the scientific progress needs a consensus: this consensus is impossible with the heterodox interpretations, while it is possible with the orthodox interpretations. Giving the preference to the orthodox interpretations is a reasonable position which could preserve both a consensus on quantum principles and a plurality of views on Quantum Mechanics.

2020年7月16日 星期四 下午2:44 | | | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited. |

2020年7月16日 星期四 下午2:33 | | | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited. |

2020年7月15日 星期三 下午6:00 | | | Jad C. Halimeh and Philipp Hauke | | | PRL: General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc. |

Author(s): Jad C. Halimeh and Philipp Hauke

Currently, there are intense experimental efforts to realize lattice gauge theories in quantum simulators. Except for specific models, however, practical quantum simulators can never be fine-tuned to perfect local gauge invariance. There is thus a strong need for a rigorous understanding of gauge-in…

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 030503] Published Wed Jul 15, 2020

2020年7月15日 星期三 下午6:00 | | | Bingtian Ye, Francisco Machado, Christopher David White, Roger S. K. Mong, and Norman Y. Yao | | | PRL: General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc. |

Author(s): Bingtian Ye, Francisco Machado, Christopher David White, Roger S. K. Mong, and Norman Y. Yao

A tremendous amount of recent attention has focused on characterizing the dynamical properties of periodically driven many-body systems. Here, we use a novel numerical tool termed “density matrix truncation” (DMT) to investigate the late-time dynamics of large-scale Floquet systems. We find that DMT…

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 030601] Published Wed Jul 15, 2020

2020年7月15日 星期三 下午3:10 | | | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited. |

2020年7月15日 星期三 下午3:07 | | | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited. |

2020年7月14日 星期二 下午3:47 | | | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited. |

2020年7月14日 星期二 下午3:44 | | | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited. |

2020年7月14日 星期二 上午8:00 | | | Latest Results for Synthese |

### Abstract

Some philosophers argue that non-presentist A-theories (i.e. the views that the tenses—past, present, and future—are objective features and that not only present things exist) problematically imply that we cannot know that this moment is present. The problem is usually presented as arising from the combination of the A-theoretic ideology of a privileged presentness and a non-presentist ontology. The goal of this essay is to show that the epistemic problem can be rephrased as a pessimistic induction. By doing so, I will show that the epistemic problem, in fact, stems from the A-theoretic ideology alone. Hence, once it is properly presented, the epistemic problem presents a serious threat to all A-theories.

2020年7月14日 星期二 上午2:50 | | | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited. |

2020年7月12日 星期日 下午3:27 | | | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited. |

2020年7月11日 星期六 下午3:39 | | | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited. |

2020年7月11日 星期六 下午3:35 | | | Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited. |