A hidden variables matrix mechanics model of the harmonic oscillator is presented as a counter-example in examining fundamental assumptions of quantum mechanics. Solutions are obtained which can be interpreted as describing continuous motion of a particle at all times located at points in space. While this is contrary to the basic postulate of Heisenberg, the experimental results of the standard matrix mechanics treatment are nevertheless reproduced. The proposed model is motivated by the foundational issues raised by Bell. Inequalities violation is however, attributed to the mathematical representation of outcome quantities as metric variables rather than the consensus assumption of local causality. Examining the consequence of this alternative conclusion on an actual quantum system creates an overlapping between Bell inspired foundational issues and the original postulates of Heisenberg and Born. Heisenberg’s basic postulates – randomness of transitions and treating the system as an ensemble – are critical. Bohr’s assumption that transitions occur instantaneously, together with Heisenberg’s non-path postulate where the particle can be measured at spatially separated locations without continuous movement between locations, are discarded. Heisenberg’s measurable-only quantities are interpreted as arising from a substructure of periodic endogenous motion of the system.

]]>John P. Ralston [Show Biography]

Planck’s constant was introduced as a fundamental unit in the early history of quantum mechanics. We find a modern approach where Planck’s constant is absent: it is unobservable except as a constant of human convention. Despite long reference to experiment, review shows that Planck’s constant cannot be obtained from the data of Ryberg, Davisson and Germer, Compton, or that used by Planck himself. In the new approach Planck’s constant is tied to macroscopic conventions of Newtonian origin, which are dispensable. The precision of other fundamental constants is substantially improved by eliminating Planck’s constant. The electron mass is determined about 67 times more precisely, and the unit of electric charge determined 139 times more precisely. Improvement in the experimental value of the fine structure constant allows new types of experiment to be compared towards finding “new physics.” The long-standing goal of eliminating reliance on the artifact known as the International Prototype Kilogram can be accomplished to assist progress in fundamental physics.

]]>Andreas Schlatter [Show Biography]

Collapse theories of quantum mechanics assume that quantum-events in space-time are real phenomena. In the causal-set picture events spread stochastically, and in the transactional picture they are additionally accompanied by the exchange of gauge bosons. We base on elements of these pictures and use the emitted gauge-bosons as clocks. We show that, in case of exchanged photons, the synchronization of the corresponding clocks in a gravitational field is governed by Einstein’s equations including a cosmological term Λ.

]]>Mohammed Sanduk [Show Biography]

Since 2007, theoretical kinematical model has been developed. The work tries to explain the complex waveform. It is a non-quantum theory. The work is a circles theory and the complex waveform arises as a result of partial observation of rolling circles. The interesting thing is that the results show an analogy with relativistic quantum mechanics. The present article tries to put forward the conceptual background of that theory. The circles world is recognised as an external world and a mathematical world, whereas the observables represent the physical world or reality. The observation leads to physicalisation process. The difference between the two worlds is related to the resolution problem of observation that causes partial observation. When this problem is effective, the reality is deficient, and we deal with a deficient reality. Within this frame, the relativistic quantum mechanics may look like a description of an observable microscopic world that is related to a mathematical external world of circles combinations, but it is for the deficient reality.

]]>R. E. Kastner [Show Biography]

This paper presents an analysis of decoherence resulting from the physically real non-unitarity, or ‘objective reduction,’ that occurs in the Transactional Interpretation (TI). Two distinct aspects of the decoherence process are identified and disambiguated; specifically, (i) the resolution of the basic measurement interaction with respect to the observable under study, and (ii) the effect on the measured system of repetition of the measurement interaction. It is shown that the measurement interaction as described in TI leads naturally to the same quantitative expression for the decoherence functional as in the standard unitary-only account. However, unlike in the unitary-only approach, under TI, the reduced density operator for the measured system can legitimately be interpreted as representing the occurrence of an actual measurement result.

]]>Mohammed Sanduk [Show Biography]

The concept of kinematics is adopted to find the kinematic forms of relativistic quantum mechanics (Dirac wave function, Dirac equation and Klein-Gordon equation). The kinematic forms do not contain Planck’s constant but have the imaginary i. Since 2007, a theory has been developing to explain the complexity (imaginary i) which is a result of the physical process. It may be referred to as the “circles theory”. This theory showed a complex position vector, a complex velocity, and a complex acceleration for a point in a system of two rolling circles. Interestingly, these three equations are similar to the kinematical forms of relativistic quantum mechanics.

]]>Huw Price [Show Biography] and Ken Wharton [Show Biography]

Quantum weirdness has been in the news recently, thanks to an ingenious new experiment by a team led by Roland Hanson, at the Delft University of Technology. Much of the coverage presents the experiment as good (even conclusive) news for spooky action-at-a-distance, and bad news for local realism. We point out that this interpretation ignores an alternative, namely that the quantum world is retrocausal. We conjecture that this loophole is missed because it is confused for superdeterminism on one side, or action-at-a-distance itself on the other. We explain why it is different from these options, and why it has clear advantages, in both cases.

]]>Andreas Schlatter [Show Biography]

We investigate the role of time and space from the perspective of the basic notions of “change” and “identity”. We formally analyze these notions and find primitive aspects of time and space, which we then rediscover in a realist model of quantum physics and in relativity. By our analysis of time and space we gain a coherent perspective on the relationship between both theories.

]]>James L. Beck [Show Biography]

John Bell and others used a locality condition to establish inequalities that they believe must be satisfied by any local hidden-variable model for the spin probability distribution for two entangled particles in an EPR-Bohm experiment. We show that this condition is invalid because it contradicts the product rule of probability theory for any model that exhibits the quantum theory property of perfect correlation. This breaks the connection between Bell inequalities and the existence of any local hidden-variable model of interest. As already known, these inequalities give necessary conditions for the existence of third/fourth-order joint probability distributions for the spin outcomes from three/four separate EPR-Bohm experimental set-ups that are consistent with the second-order joint spin distributions for each experiment after marginalization. If a Bell inequality is violated, as quantum mechanics theory predicts and experiments show can happen, then at least one third-order joint probability is negative. However, this does not imply anything about the existence of local hidden-variable models for the second-order joint probability distributions for the spin outcomes of a single experiment. The locality condition does seem reasonable under the widely-applied frequentist interpretation of the spin probability distributions that views them as real properties of a random process that are manifested through their relative frequency of occurrence, which gives conditioning in the probabilities for the spin outcomes a causal role. In contrast, under the Bayesian interpretation of probability, probabilistic conditioning on one particle’s spin outcome in the product rule is viewed as information to make probabilistic predictions of the other particle’s spin outcome. There is nothing causal and so no reason to develop a locality condition. Thus, how probability is to be interpreted is critical to understanding quantum entanglement and locality.

]]>Christos Dedes [Show Biography]

A non-linear backward equation with diffusive terms is postulated for the probability density that depends on the Bohmian quantum potential. An associated nonlinear Schroedinger equation is also introduced and extension of the analysis to several particle compounds is sketched along with the implications following from this formalism regarding the non-conservation of probability in the non-equilibrium regime. Some further conclusions are educed with respect to the generalized optical theorem.

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