Weekly Papers on Quantum Foundations (36)

Gravitational redshift induces quantum interference. (arXiv:2109.00728v1 [quant-ph])

上午10:13|David Edward Bruschi, Andreas W. Schell|quant-ph updates on arXiv.org

We use quantum field theory in curved spacetime to show that gravitational redshift induces a unitary transformation on the quantum state of propagating photons. This occurs for realistic photons characterized by a finite bandwidth, while ideal photons with sharp frequencies do not transform unitarily. We find that the transformation is a mode-mixing operation, and we devise a protocol that exploits gravity to induce a Hong-Ou-Mandel-like interference effect on the state of two photons. Testing the results of this work can provide a demonstration of quantum field theory in curved spacetime.

Causal structure in spin-foams. (arXiv:2109.00986v1 [gr-qc])

上午10:13|Eugenio Bianchi, Pierre Martin-Dussaud|quant-ph updates on arXiv.org

The metric field of general relativity is almost fully determined by its causal structure. Yet, in spin-foam models for quantum gravity, the role played by the causal structure is still largely unexplored. The goal of this paper is to clarify how causality is encoded in such models. The quest unveils the physical meaning of the orientation of the two-complex and its role as a dynamical variable. We propose a causal version of the EPRL spin-foam model and discuss the role of the causal structure in the reconstruction of a semiclassical spacetime geometry.

The Future of Quantum Theory: A Way Out of the Impasse. (arXiv:2109.01028v1 [quant-ph])

上午10:13|Ghislain Fourny|quant-ph updates on arXiv.org

In this letter, we point to three widely accepted challenges that the quantum theory, quantum information, and quantum foundations communities are currently facing: indeterminism, the semantics of conditional probabilities, and the spooky action at a distance. We argue that these issues are fundamentally rooted in conflations commonly made between causal dependencies, counterfactual dependencies, and statistical dependencies. We argue that a simple, albeit somewhat uncomfortable shift of viewpoint leads to a way out of the impossibility to extend the theory beyond indeterminism, and towards the possibility that sound extensions of quantum theory, possibly even deterministic yet not super-deterministic, will emerge in the future. The paradigm shift, which we present here, involves a non-trivial relaxation of the commonly accepted mathematical definition of free choice, leading to non-Nashian free choice, more care with the choice of probabilistic notations, and more rigorous use of vocabulary related to causality, counterfactuals, and correlations, which are three concepts of a fundamentally different nature.

Realism-based nonlocality: Invariance under local unitary operations and asymptotic decay for thermal correlated states. (arXiv:2109.01053v1 [quant-ph])

上午10:13|V. S. Gomes, P. R. Dieguez, H. M. Vasconcelos|quant-ph updates on arXiv.org

The realism-based nonlocality (RBN) is a recently introduced measure that differs from the well-known Bell’s nonlocality. For bipartite states, the RBN concerns how much an element of reality associated with a given observable is affected upon local measurements on a subsystem. Here, we present an analytical proof for the unitary invariance of the RBN and that it presents a monotonous behavior upon the action of unital and non-unital local quantum noise. We illustrate our results by employing the two-qubits Werner state and thermal quantum correlated states. We show how the RBN is limited by the initial equilibrium temperature and, especially, that it decays asymptotically with it. These results also corroborate the hierarchy relationship between the quantifiers of RBN and global quantum discord, showing that RBN can capture undetectable nonlocal aspects even for non-discordant states. Finally, we argue how our results can be employed to use the RBN as a security tool in quantum communication tasks.

The Autodidactic Universe. (arXiv:2104.03902v2 [hep-th] UPDATED)

上午10:13|Stephon Alexander, William J. Cunningham, Jaron Lanier, Lee Smolin, Stefan Stanojevic, Michael W. Toomey, Dave Wecker|quant-ph updates on arXiv.org

We present an approach to cosmology in which the Universe learns its own physical laws. It does so by exploring a landscape of possible laws, which we express as a certain class of matrix models. We discover maps that put each of these matrix models in correspondence with both a gauge/gravity theory and a mathematical model of a learning machine, such as a deep recurrent, cyclic neural network. This establishes a correspondence between each solution of the physical theory and a run of a neural network. This correspondence is not an equivalence, partly because gauge theories emerge from $N \rightarrow \infty $ limits of the matrix models, whereas the same limits of the neural networks used here are not well-defined. We discuss in detail what it means to say that learning takes place in autodidactic systems, where there is no supervision. We propose that if the neural network model can be said to learn without supervision, the same can be said for the corresponding physical theory. We consider other protocols for autodidactic physical systems, such as optimization of graph variety, subset-replication using self-attention and look-ahead, geometrogenesis guided by reinforcement learning, structural learning using renormalization group techniques, and extensions. These protocols together provide a number of directions in which to explore the origin of physical laws based on putting machine learning architectures in correspondence with physical theories.

Which way does stimulated emission go?. (arXiv:2108.13943v2 [physics.optics] UPDATED)

上午10:13|J. David Wong-Campos, Trey Porto, Adam E. Cohen|quant-ph updates on arXiv.org

Is it possible to form an image using light produced by stimulated emission? Here we study light scatter off an assembly of excited chromophores. Due to the Optical Theorem, stimulated emission is necessarily accompanied by excited state Rayleigh scattering. Both processes can be used to form images, though they have different dependencies on scattering direction, wavelength and chromophore configuration. Our results suggest several new approaches to optical imaging using fluorophore excited states.

A road map for Feynman’s adventures in the land of gravitation. (arXiv:2102.11220v2 [physics.hist-ph] UPDATED)

上午10:13|physics.hist-ph updates on arXiv.org

Authors: Marco Di MauroSalvatore EspositoAdele Naddeo

Richard P. Feynman’s work on gravitation, as can be inferred from several published and unpublished sources, is reviewed. Feynman was involved with this subject at least from late 1954 to the late 1960s, giving several pivotal contributions to it. Even though he published only three papers, much more material is available, beginning with the records of his many interventions at the Chapel Hill conference in 1957, which are here analyzed in detail, and show that he had already considerably developed his ideas on gravity. In addition he expressed deep thoughts about fundamental issues in quantum mechanics which were suggested by the problem of quantum gravity, such as superpositions of the wave functions of macroscopic objects and the role of the observer. Feynman also lectured on gravity several times. Besides the famous lectures given at Caltech in 1962-63, he extensively discussed this subject in a series of lectures delivered at the Hughes Aircraft Company in 1966-67, whose focus was on astronomy and astrophysics. All this material allows to reconstruct a detailed picture of Feynman’s ideas on gravity and of their evolution until the late sixties. According to him, gravity, like electromagnetism, has quantum foundations, therefore general relativity has to be regarded as the classical limit of an underlying quantum theory; this quantum theory should be investigated by computing physical processes, as if they were experimentally accessible. The same attitude is shown with respect to gravitational waves, as is evident also from an unpublished letter addressed to Victor F. Weisskopf. In addition, an original approach to gravity, which closely mimics (and probably was inspired by) the derivation of the Maxwell equations given by Feynman in that period, is sketched in the unpublished Hughes lectures.

Relational electromagnetism and the electromagnetic force. (arXiv:2102.13108v2 [physics.class-ph] UPDATED)

上午10:13|physics.hist-ph updates on arXiv.org

Authors: M.A. NatielloHernán G Solari

The force exerted by an electromagnetic body on another body in relative motion, and its minimal expression, the force on moving charges or \emph{Lorentz’ force} constitute the link between electromagnetism and mechanics. Expressions for the force were produced first by Maxwell and later by H. A. Lorentz, but their expressions disagree. The construction process was the result, in both cases, of analogies rooted in the idea of the ether. Yet, the expression of the force has remained despite its production context. We present a path to the electromagnetic force that starts from Ludwig Lorenz’ relational electromagnetism. The present mathematical abduction does not rest on analogies. Following this path we show that relational electromagnetism, as pursued by the G\”ottingen school, is consistent with Maxwell’s transformation laws and compatible with the idea that the “speed of light” takes the same value in all (inertial) frames of reference, while it cannot be conceived on the basis of analogies with material motion.

Physics for the masses: teaching Einsteinian gravity in primary school. (arXiv:2109.00598v1 [physics.ed-ph])

上午10:13|gr-qc updates on arXiv.org

Authors: Matteo Luca RuggieroSara MattielloMatteo Leone

Why is modern physics still today, more than 100 years after its birth, the privilege of an elite of scientists and unknown for the great majority of citizens? The answer is simple, since modern physics is in general not present in the standard physics curricula, except for some general outlines, in the final years of some secondary schools. But, is it possibile to teach modern physics in primary school? Is it effective? And, also, is it engaging for students? These are the simple questions which stimulated our research, based on an intervention performed in the last year of Italian primary school, focused on teaching gravity, according to the Einsteinian approach in the spirit of the Einstein First project, an international collaboration which aims to teach school age children the concepts of modern physics. The outcomes of our research study are in agreement with previous findings obtained in Australian schools, thus they contribute to validate them and show that there is no cultural effect, since the approach works in different education systems. Finally, our results are relevant also in terms of retention and prove that the students involved really understand the key ideas.

Celestial Holography: Lectures on Asymptotic Symmetries. (arXiv:2109.00997v1 [hep-th])

上午10:13|gr-qc updates on arXiv.org

Authors: P. B. AneeshGeoffrey CompèreLeonardo Pipolo de GioiaIgor MolBianca Swidler

The aim of these Lectures is to provide a brief overview of the subject of asymptotic symmetries of gauge and gravity theories in asymptotically flat spacetimes as background material for celestial holography.

Popper and the Propensity Interpretation of Probability

上午12:32|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Pence, Charles H. (2021) Popper and the Propensity Interpretation of Probability. [Preprint]

A discussion on the origin of quantum probabilities

2021年9月2日 星期四 下午2:32|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Holik, Federico and Plastino, Angelo and Sáenz, Manuel (2013) A discussion on the origin of quantum probabilities. Annals of Physics, 340 (1). pp. 293-310.

On the assumptions underlying KS-like contradictions

2021年9月2日 星期四 下午2:31|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

de Barros, José Acacio and Jorge, Juan Pablo and Holik, Federico (2021) On the assumptions underlying KS-like contradictions. [Preprint]

Indistinguishability right from the start in standard quantum mechanics

2021年9月2日 星期四 下午2:30|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Holik, Federico and Jorge, Juan Pablo and Massri, César (2020) Indistinguishability right from the start in standard quantum mechanics. [Preprint]

Is the life-world reduction sufficient in quantum physics ?

2021年8月31日 星期二 下午4:02|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Bitbol, Michel (2021) Is the life-world reduction sufficient in quantum physics ? Continental Philosophy Review.

A PHENOMENOLOGICAL ONTOLOGY FOR PHYSICS: Merleau-Ponty and QBism

2021年8月31日 星期二 下午4:00|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Bitbol, Michel (2020) A PHENOMENOLOGICAL ONTOLOGY FOR PHYSICS: Merleau-Ponty and QBism.

A computational complexity approach to the definition of empirical equivalence.

2021年8月31日 星期二 下午3:58|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Brogioli, Doriano (2019) A computational complexity approach to the definition of empirical equivalence. [Preprint]

On the pragmatic and epistemic virtues of inference to the best explanation

2021年8月29日 星期日 上午8:00|Latest Results for Synthese

Abstract

In a series of papers over the past twenty years, and in a new book, Igor Douven (sometimes in collaboration with Sylvia Wenmackers) has argued that Bayesians are too quick to reject versions of inference to the best explanation that cannot be accommodated within their framework. In this paper, I survey their worries and attempt to answer them using a series of pragmatic and purely epistemic arguments that I take to show that Bayes’ Rule really is the only rational way to respond to your evidence.

Supermeasured: Violating Statistical Independence without violating statistical independence [arXiv:2108.07292 (quant-ph)]

J.R. HanceS. HossenfelderT.N. Palmer

Bell’s theorem is often said to imply that quantum mechanics violates local causality, and that local causality cannot be restored with a hidden-variables theory. This however is only correct if the hidden-variables theory fulfils an assumption called Statistical Independence. Violations of Statistical Independence are commonly interpreted as correlations between the measurement settings and the hidden variables (which determine the measurement outcomes). Such correlations have been discarded as “finetuning” or a “conspiracy”. We here point out that the common interpretation is at best physically ambiguous and at worst incorrect. The problem with the common interpretation is that Statistical Independence might be violated because of a non-trivial measure in state space, a possibility we propose to call “supermeasured”. We use Invariant Set Theory as an example of a supermeasured theory that violates the Statistical Independence assumption in Bell’s theorem without requiring correlations between hidden variables and measurement settings.

Bell’s Theorem, Non-Computability and Conformal Cyclic Cosmology: A Top-Down Approach to Quantum Gravity [arXiv:2108.10902 (quant-ph)]

T.N. Palmer

This paper draws on a number of Roger Penrose’s ideas – including the non-Hamiltonian phase-space flow of the Hawking Box, Conformal Cyclic Cosmology, non-computability and gravitationally induced quantum state reduction – in order to propose a radically unconventional approach to quantum gravity: Invariant Set Theory (IST). In IST, the fundamental laws of physics describe the geometry of the phase portrait of the universe as a whole: “quantum” process are associated with fine-scale fractal geometry, “gravitational” process with larger-scale heterogeneous geometry. With this, it becomes possible to explain the experimental violation of Bell Inequalities without having to abandon key ingredients of general relativity: determinism and local causality. Ensembles in IST can be described by complex Hilbert states over a finite set Cp of complex numbers, where p is a large finite integer. The quantum mechanics of finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces is emergent as a singular limit when p→∞. A small modification to the field equations of general relativity is proposed to make it consistent with IST.

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