Weekly Papers on Quantum Foundations (36)

Violation of Heisenberg’s Error-Disturbance Relation by Stern-Gerlach Measurements. (arXiv:2009.01646v1 [quant-ph])

上午10:15|Yuki Inoue, Masanao Ozawa|quant-ph updates on arXiv.org

Although “Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle” is represented by a rigorously proven relation about intrinsic indeterminacy in quantum states, Heisenberg’s error-disturbance relation (EDR) has been commonly believed as another aspect of the principle. However, recent developments of quantum measurement theory made Heisenberg’s EDR testable to observe its violations. Here, we study the EDR for Stern-Gerlach measurements and we conclude that their EDR is close to the theoretical optimal and surprisingly that even the original Stern-Gerlach experiment in 1922 violates Heisenberg’s EDR.A Personal History of the Hastings-Michalakis Proof of Hall Conductance Quantization. (arXiv:2009.01645v1 [physics.hist-ph])

上午10:15|physics.hist-ph updates on arXiv.org

Authors: M. B. Hastings

This is a personal history of the Hastings-Michalakis proof of quantum Hall conductance quantization.Particles, Fields, and the Measurement of Electron Spin. (arXiv:2007.00619v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

上午10:15|physics.hist-ph updates on arXiv.org

Authors: Charles T. Sebens

This article compares treatments of the Stern-Gerlach experiment across different physical theories, building up to a novel analysis of electron spin measurement in the context of classical Dirac field theory. Modeling the electron as a classical rigid body or point particle, we can explain why the entire electron is always found at just one location on the detector (uniqueness) but we cannot explain why there are only two locations where the electron is ever found (discreteness). Using non-relativistic or relativistic quantum mechanics, we can explain both uniqueness and discreteness. Moving to more fundamental physics, both features can be explained within a quantum theory of the Dirac field. In a classical theory of the Dirac field, the rotating charge of the electron can split into two pieces that each hit the detector at a different location. In this classical context, we can explain a feature of electron spin that is often described as distinctively quantum (discreteness) but we cannot explain another feature that could be explained within any of the other theories (uniqueness).Sequential dynamics of complex networks in mind: Consciousness and creativity

上午10:15|ScienceDirect Publication: Physics ReportsScienceDirect RSShttps://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/physics-reportsRSS for NodeTue, 23 Jul 2019 10:02:48 GMTCopyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reservedRapid solidification as non-ergodic phenomenonPublication date: 20 July 2019Source: Physics Reports, Volume 818Author(s): P.K. Galenko, D. JouAbstractRapid solidification is a relevant physical phenomenon in material sciences, whose theoretical analysis requires going beyond the limits of local equilibrium statistical physics and thermodynamics and, in particular, taking account of ergodicity breaking and of generalized formulation of thermodynamics. The ergodicity breaking is related to the time symmetry breaking and to the presence of some kinds of fluxes and gradient flows making that an average of microscopic variables along time is different than an average over some chosen statistical ensemble. In fast processes, this is due, for instance, to the fact that the system has no time enough to explore the who

Publication date: Available online 29 August 2020

Source: Physics Reports

Author(s): Mikhail I. Rabinovich, Michael A. Zaks, Pablo VaronaTesting gravity with cold atom interferometry: Results and prospects. (arXiv:2009.01484v1 [gr-qc])

上午10:15|gr-qc updates on arXiv.org

Authors: Guglielmo M. Tino

Atom interferometers have been developed in the last three decades as new powerful tools to investigate gravity. Here I describe past and ongoing experiments with an outlook on what I think are the main prospects in this field and the potential to search for new physics.An Exact False Vacuum Decay Rate. (arXiv:2009.01535v1 [hep-th])

上午10:15|gr-qc updates on arXiv.org

Authors: Victor GuadaMiha Nemevšek

We discuss an exact false vacuum decay rate at one loop for a real and complex scalar field in a quartic-quartic potential with two tree-level minima. The bounce solution is used to compute the functional determinant from both fluctuations. We obtain the finite product of eigenvalues and remove translational zero modes. The orbital modes are regularized with the zeta function and we end up with an complete decay rate after renormalization. We derive simple expansions in the thin and thick wall limits and investigate their validity.Predictive power of grand unification from quantum gravity. (arXiv:1909.07318v2 [hep-th] UPDATED)

上午10:15|gr-qc updates on arXiv.org

Authors: Astrid EichhornAaron HeldChristof Wetterich

If a grand-unified extension of the asymptotically safe Reuter fixed-point for quantum gravity exists, it determines free parameters of the grand-unified scalar potential. All quartic couplings take their fixed-point values in the trans-Planckian regime. They are irrelevant parameters that are, in principle, computable for a given particle content of the grand unified model. In turn, the direction of spontaneous breaking of the grand-unified gauge symmetry becomes predictable. For the flow of the couplings below the Planck mass, gauge and Yukawa interactions compete for the determination of the minimum of the effective potential.Testing ER=EPR. (arXiv:2002.08178v2 [hep-th] UPDATED)

上午10:15|gr-qc updates on arXiv.org

Authors: De-Chang DaiDjordje MinicDejan StojkovicChangbo Fu

We discuss a few tests of the ER=EPR proposal. We consider certain conceptual issues as well as explicit physical examples that could be experimentally realized. In particular, we discuss the role of the Bell bounds, the large N limit, as well as the consistency of certain theoretical assumptions underlying the ER=EPR proposal. As explicit tests of the ER=EPR proposal we consider limits coming from the entropy-energy relation and certain limits coming from measurements of the speed of light as well as measurements of effective weights of entangled states. We also discuss various caveats of such experimental tests of the ER=EPR proposal.The cosmological constant and the use of cutoffs. (arXiv:2009.00728v1 [hep-th] CROSS LISTED)

上午10:15|gr-qc updates on arXiv.org

Authors: John F. Donoghue

Of the contributions to the cosmological constant, zero-point energy and self energy contributions scale as $\Lambda^4$ where $\Lambda$ is an ultraviolet cutoff used to regulate the calculations. I show that such contributions vanish when calculated in perturbation theory. This demonstration uses a little-known modification to perturbation theory found by Honerkamp and Meetz and by Gerstein, Jackiw, Lee and Weinberg which comes into play when using cutoffs and interactions with multiple derivatives, as found in chiral theories and gravity. In a path integral treatment, the new interaction arises from the path integral measure. This reduces the sensitivity of the cosmological constant to the high energy cutoff significantly, although it does not resolve the cosmological constant problem. The feature removes one of the common motivations for supersymmetry. It also calls into question some of the results of the Asymptotic Safety program. Covariance and quadratic cutoff dependence are also briefly discussed.Distinguishing topological and causal explanation

上午4:00|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Ross, Lauren N. (2020) Distinguishing topological and causal explanation. [Preprint]The non-ideal theory of the Aharonov–Bohm effect

上午3:59|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Dougherty, John (2020) The non-ideal theory of the Aharonov–Bohm effect. Synthese. ISSN 1573-0964Effective Theories and Infinite Idealizations: A Challenge for Scientific Realism

上午3:58|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Rivat, Sébastien (2020) Effective Theories and Infinite Idealizations: A Challenge for Scientific Realism. [Preprint]Narrowing the Parameter Space of Collapse Models with Ultracold Layered Force Sensors

2020年9月3日 星期四 下午6:00|A. Vinante, M. Carlesso, A. Bassi, A. Chiasera, S. Varas, P. Falferi, B. Margesin, R. Mezzena, and H. Ulbricht|PRL: General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

Author(s): A. Vinante, M. Carlesso, A. Bassi, A. Chiasera, S. Varas, P. Falferi, B. Margesin, R. Mezzena, and H. Ulbricht

Despite the unquestionable empirical success of quantum theory, witnessed by the recent uprising of quantum technologies, the debate on how to reconcile the theory with the macroscopic classical world is still open. Spontaneous collapse models are one of the few testable solutions so far proposed. I…

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 100404] Published Thu Sep 03, 2020Finite-Time Landauer Principle

2020年9月3日 星期四 下午6:00|Karel Proesmans, Jannik Ehrich, and John Bechhoefer|PRL: General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

Author(s): Karel Proesmans, Jannik Ehrich, and John Bechhoefer

Entropy produced by erasure of information in finite time can be minimized regardless of the final state by the use of optimal protocols that control the potential landscape.

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 100602] Published Thu Sep 03, 2020Norton’s material theory of analogy

2020年9月3日 星期四 下午1:38|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Bartha, Paul (2020) Norton’s material theory of analogy. In: UNSPECIFIED.Understanding Quantum Mechanics (Beyond Metaphysical Dogmatism and Naive Empiricism)

2020年9月3日 星期四 下午1:35|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

de Ronde, Christian (2020) Understanding Quantum Mechanics (Beyond Metaphysical Dogmatism and Naive Empiricism). [Preprint]Particles, fields, and the measurement of electron spin

2020年9月3日 星期四 上午8:00|Latest Results for Synthese

Abstract

This article compares treatments of the Stern–Gerlach experiment across different physical theories, building up to a novel analysis of electron spin measurement in the context of classical Dirac field theory. Modeling the electron as a classical rigid body or point particle, we can explain why the entire electron is always found at just one location on the detector (uniqueness) but we cannot explain why there are only two locations where the electron is ever found (discreteness). Using non-relativistic or relativistic quantum mechanics, we can explain both uniqueness and discreteness. Moving to more fundamental physics, both features can be explained within a quantum theory of the Dirac field. In a classical theory of the Dirac field, the rotating charge of the electron can split into two pieces that each hit the detector at a different location. In this classical context, we can explain a feature of electron spin that is often described as distinctively quantum (discreteness) but we cannot explain another feature that could be explained within any of the other theories (uniqueness).Meaning relativism and subjective idealism

2020年9月1日 星期二 上午8:00|Latest Results for Synthese

Abstract

The paper discusses an objection, put forward by—among others—John McDowell, to Kripke’s Wittgenstein’s non-factualist and relativist view of semantic discourse. The objection goes roughly as follows: while it is usually possible to be a relativist about a given domain of discourse without being a relativist about anything else, relativism about semantic discourse entails global relativism, which in turn entails subjective idealism, which we can reasonably assume to be false. The paper’s first section sketches Kripke’s Wittgenstein’s ideas about semantic discourse and gives a fully explicit formulation of the objection. The second section describes and briefly discusses the formal apparatus needed to evaluate the objection—which is basically equivalent to John MacFarlane’s recent development of David Kaplan’s classic semantic framework. Finally, the third section explains in detail why the objection fails. I show that even though relativism about semantic discourse does entail a form of global relativism, the relativism in question does not entail anything like Berkeleyan or Fichtean idealism. This particular kind of relativism holds that which character (in Kaplan’s sense) is associated to a given utterance depends on what MacFarlane calls “the context of assessment”.A consciousness-based quantum objective collapse model

2020年9月1日 星期二 上午8:00|Latest Results for Synthese

Abstract

Ever since the early days of quantum mechanics it has been suggested that consciousness could be linked to the collapse of the wave function. However, no detailed account of such an interplay is usually provided. In this paper we present an objective collapse model (a variation of the Continuous Spontaneous Location model) where the collapse operator depends on integrated information, which has been argued to measure consciousness. By doing so, we construct an empirically adequate scheme in which superpositions of conscious states are dynamically suppressed. Unlike other proposals in which “consciousness causes the collapse of the wave function,” our model is fully consistent with a materialistic view of the world and does not require the postulation of entities suspicious of laying outside of the quantum realm.A challenge for Super-Humeanism: the problem of immanent comparisons

2020年9月1日 星期二 上午8:00|Latest Results for Synthese

Abstract

According to the doctrine of Super-Humeanism (Esfeld in Synthese. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11229-017-1426-8, 2017), the world’s mosaic consists only of permanent matter points and changing spatial relations, while all the other entities and features figuring in scientific theories are nomological parameters, whose role is merely to build the best law system. In this paper, I develop an argument against Super-Humeanism by pointing out that it is vulnerable to and does not have the resources to solve the well-known problem of immanent comparisons. Firstly, I show that it cannot endorse a fundamentalist solution à la Lewis, since its two pillars—a minimalist ontology and a best system account of lawhood—would generate, together, a tedious problem of internal coherence. Secondly, I consider anti-fundamentalist strategies, proposed within Humeanism, and find them inapplicable to the Super-Humean doctrine. The concern is that, since it is impossible to choose the best law system within Super-Humeanism, this doctrine may be charged with incoherence.On the Classification between ψ−Ontic and ψ−Epistemic Ontological Models

2020年8月31日 星期一 下午1:13|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Oldofredi, Andrea and López, Cristian (2020) On the Classification between ψ−Ontic and ψ−Epistemic Ontological Models. [Preprint]Objective Consequentialism and the Plurality of Chances

2020年8月29日 星期六 下午3:34|Philsci-Archive: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Wroński, Leszek (2020) Objective Consequentialism and the Plurality of Chances. [Preprint]

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