Weekly Papers on Quantum Foundations (24)

Authors: William Donnelly

The holographic principle posits that all quantum information in a region of spacetime is encoded on its boundary. While there is strong evidence for this principle in certain models of quantum gravity in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime, it is yet to be established whether holography is a generic feature of quantum gravity, or a peculiar property of these models. The goal of the present work is to present a model of holographic reconstruction in the framework of perturbative quantum gravity in flat spacetime. Specifically, we consider a state in the single-particle sector of a quantum field theory and give a method to completely reconstruct the quantum state from measurement of the metric at spatial infinity. Our argument uses a relativistic generalization of the quantum-mechanical Wigner function, and gives an explicit mechanism by which the gravitational constraints encode quantum information holographically on the boundary. Moreover, it suggests how information about more general states might be recovered from soft charges at null infinity, with applications to the black hole information loss paradox.

Authors: Grzegorz Plewa

Inspired by ER=EPR conjecture, we search for a connection between quantum entanglement and geometry. Starting with several simple postulates, we present a formalism providing decomposition of the vacuum of quantum harmonic oscillator into two maximally entangled states in such a way that both can be interpreted geometrically. The interpretation is based solely on the form of the states, and it reveals certain structures at the boundary and in the bulk of $AdS_3$. The former correspond to world lines of massless particles at the boundary. The latter resemble worldsheets of interacting closed strings.

Authors: Tanmay VachaspatiGeorge Zahariade

We work in the Heisenberg picture to demonstrate the classical-quantum correspondence (CQC) in which the dynamics of a quantum variable is equivalent to that of a complexified classical variable. The correspondence provides a tool for analyzing quantum backreaction problems which we illustrate by a toy model in which a rolling particle slows down due to quantum radiation. The dynamics found using the CQC is in excellent agreement with that found using the much more laborious full quantum analysis.

Authors: Laura Felline

In his recent book Bananaworld. Quantum mechanics for primates, Jeff Bub revives and provides a mature version of his influential information theoretic interpretation of Quantum Theory (QT). In this paper, I test Bub s conjecture that QT should be interpreted as a theory about information, by examining whether his information theoretic interpretation has the resources to explain (or explain away) quantum conundrums. The discussion of Bub s theses will also serve to investigate, more in general, whether other approaches succeed in defending the claim that QT is about quantum information. First of all, I argue that Bub s interpretation of QT as a principle theory fails to fully explain quantum nonlocality. Secondly, I argue that a constructive interpretation, where the quantum state is interpreted ontically as information, also fails at providing a full explanation of quantum correlations. Finally, while epistemic interpretations might succeed in this respect, I argue that such a success comes at the price of rejecting some in between the most basic scientific standards of physical theories.

Authors: Johannes Mesa PascasioSiegfried FussyHerbert SchwablGerhard Groessing

In the quest for an understanding of nonlocality with respect to an appropriate ontology, we propose a “cosmological solution”. We assume that from the beginning of the universe each point in space has been the location of a scalar field representing a zero-point vacuum energy that nonlocally vibrates at a vast range of different frequencies across the whole universe. A quantum, then, is a nonequilibrium steady state in the form of a “bouncer” coupled resonantly to one of those (particle type dependent) frequencies, in remote analogy to the bouncing oil drops on an oscillating oil bath as in Couder’s experiments. A major difference to the latter analogy is given by the nonlocal nature of the vacuum oscillations.

We show with the examples of double- and $n$-slit interference that the assumed nonlocality of the distribution functions alone suffices to derive the de Broglie-Bohm guiding equation for $N$ particles with otherwise purely classical means. In our model, no influences from configuration space are required, as everything can be described in 3-space. Importantly, the setting up of an experimental arrangement limits and shapes the forward and osmotic contributions and is described as vacuum landscaping.

Authors: Anastasios Y. Papaioannou

Using the language of the Geometric Algebra, we recast the massive Dirac bispinor as a set of Lorentz scalar, vector, bivector, pseudovector, and pseudoscalar fields that obey a generalized form of Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism. This field-based formulation requires careful distinction between geometric and non-geometric implementations of the imaginary unit scalar in the Dirac algebra. This distinction, which is obscured in conventional treatments, allows us to find alternative constructions of the field bilinears and a more natural interpretation of the discrete C, P, and T transformations.

Authors: Laura Felline

The aim of this paper is to explore the ways in which Axiomatic Reconstructions of Quantum Theory in terms of Information-Theoretic principles (ARQITs) can contribute to explaining and understanding quantum phenomena, as well as to study their explanatory limitations. This is achieved in part by offering an account of the kind of explanation that axiomatic reconstructions of quantum theory provide, and re-evaluating the epistemic status of the program in light of this explanation. As illustrative cases studies, I take Clifton’s, Bub’s and Halvorson’s characterization theorem and Popescu’s and Rohrlich’s toy models, and their explanatory contribution with respect to quantum non-locality. On the one hand, I argue that ARQITs can aspire to provide genuine explanations of (some aspects of) quantum non-locality. On the other hand, I argue that such explanations cannot rule out a mechanical quantum theory.

Authors: Tomas Zimmermann

A formulation of quantum mechanics is introduced based on a $2D$-dimensional phase-space wave function $\text{\reflectbox{\text{p}}}\mkern-3mu\text{p}\left(q,p\right)$ which might be computed from the position-space wave function $\psi\left(q\right)$ with a transformation related to the Gabor transformation. The equation of motion for conservative systems can be written in the form of the Schr\”{o}dinger equation with a $4D$-dimensional Hamiltonian with classical terms on the diagonal and complex off-diagonal couplings. The Hamiltonian does not contain any differential operators and the quantization is achieved by replacing $q$ and $p$ with $2D$-dimensional counterparts $\left(q+q’\right)/2$ and $\left(p+p’\right)/2$ and by using a complex-valued factor $e^{i\left(q\cdot p’-q’\cdot p\right)/2}$ in phase-space integrals. Despite the fact that the formulation increases the dimensionality, it might provide a way towards exact multi-dimensional computations as it may be evaluated directly with Monte-Carlo algorithms.

Authors: Luciana HenautLorenzo CataniDan E. BrowneShane MansfieldAnna Pappa

We introduce a simple single-system game inspired by the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) game. For qubit systems subjected to unitary gates and projective measurements, we prove that any strategy in our game can be mapped to a strategy in the CHSH game, which implies that Tsirelson’s bound also holds in our setting. More generally, we show that the optimal success probability depends on the reversible or irreversible character of the gates, the quantum or classical nature of the system and the system dimension. We analyse the bounds obtained in light of Landauer’s principle, showing the entropic costs of the erasure associated with the game. This shows a connection between the reversibility in fundamental operations embodied by Landauer’s principle and Tsirelson’s bound, that arises from the restricted physics of a unitarily-evolving single-qubit system.

Authors: Orchidea MariaLecian

The features of correlated Michelson interferometers are for describing the analysis of Einsteinian spacetime models, and the quantum geometries pertinent with descriptions of GR compatible with particle Physics. Such apparati allow for the spectral decomposition of fractional Planck-scale displacements correlations and fractional Plancktime- interval correlations for kinematical investigations in particle Physics on emerging Minkowski background, and for models which admit GR as a limit after cosmological implementations for Poincar\’e particles content.

Publication date: 25 August 2018
Source:Physics Letters A, Volume 382, Issue 33
Author(s): Anna M. Nobili, Alberto Anselmi
Tests of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) probe the foundations of physics. Ever since Galileo in the early 1600s, WEP tests have attracted some of the best experimentalists of any time. Progress has come in bursts, each stimulated by the introduction of a new technique: the torsion balance, signal modulation by Earth rotation, the rotating torsion balance. Tests for various materials in the field of the Earth and the Sun have found no violation to the level of about 1 part in 1013. A different technique, Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), has reached comparable precision. Today, both laboratory tests and LLR have reached a point when improving by a factor of 10 is extremely hard. The promise of another quantum leap in precision rests on experiments performed in low Earth orbit. The Microscope satellite, launched in April 2016 and currently taking data, aims to test WEP in the field of Earth to 10 − 15 , a 100-fold improvement possible thanks to a driving signal in orbit almost 500 times stronger than for torsion balances on ground. The ‘Galileo Galilei’ (GG) experiment, by combining the advantages of space with those of the rotating torsion balance, aims at a WEP test 100 times more precise than Microscope, to 10 − 17 . A quantitative comparison of the key issues in the two experiments is presented, along with recent experimental measurements relevant for GG. Early results from Microscope, reported at a conference in March 2017, show measurement performance close to the expectations and confirm the key role of rotation with the advantage (unique to space) of rotating the whole spacecraft. Any non-null result from Microscope would be a major discovery and call for urgent confirmation; with 100 times better precision GG could settle the matter and provide a deeper probe of the foundations of physics.

Author(s): Yuan Yuan, Zhibo Hou, Kang-Da Wu, Guo-Yong Xiang, Chuan-Feng Li, and Guang-Can Guo

When a photon passes through an interferometer, quantum mechanics does not provide a clear answer as to its past. Quantum retrodiction is a quantitative theory, which endeavors to make statements about the past of a system based on present knowledge. Quantum retrodiction may be used to analyze the p…
[Phys. Rev. A 97, 062115] Published Fri Jun 15, 2018

Author(s): Dong-Ling Deng

Machine learning, the core of artificial intelligence and big data science, is one of today’s most rapidly growing interdisciplinary fields. Recently, machine learning tools and techniques have been adopted to tackle intricate quantum many-body problems. In this Letter, we introduce machine learning…
[Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 240402] Published Thu Jun 14, 2018

Wuthrich, Christian (2018) When the actual world is not even possible. [Preprint]

A quantum state’s entanglement across a bipartite cut can be quantified with entanglement entropy or, more generally, Schmidt norms. Using only Schmidt decompositions, we present a simple iterative algorithm to maximize Schmidt norms. Depending on the choice of norm, the optimizing states maximize or minimize entanglement, possibly across several bipartite cuts at the same time and possibly only among states in a specified subspace. Recognizing that convergence but not success is certain, we use the algorithm to explore topics ranging from fermionic reduced density matrices and varieties of pure quantum states to absolutely maximally entangled states and minimal output entropy of channels.

Author(s): Raam Uzdin and Saar Rahav

The second law of thermodynamics can be described using the Clausius inequality, the main link between classical and quantum thermodynamics. A new thermodynamic framework addresses long-standing limitations of this inequality and reveals new bounds relevant to quantum technology experiments.

[Phys. Rev. X 8, 021064] Published Tue Jun 12, 2018


Recently it was shown that certain fluid-mechanical ‘pilot-wave’ systems can strikingly mimic a range of quantum properties, including single particle diffraction and interference, quantization of angular momentum etc. How far does this analogy go? The ultimate test of (apparent) quantumness of such systems is a Bell-test. Here the premises of the Bell inequality are re-investigated for particles accompanied by a pilot-wave, or more generally by a resonant ‘background’ field. We find that two of these premises, namely outcome independence and measurement independence, may not be generally valid when such a background is present. Under this assumption the Bell inequality is possibly (but not necessarily) violated. A class of hydrodynamic Bell experiments is proposed that could test this claim. Such a Bell test on fluid systems could provide a wealth of new insights on the different loopholes for Bell’s theorem. Finally, it is shown that certain properties of background-based theories can be illustrated in Ising spin-lattices.

Walsh, Kirsten (2017) Newton: from certainty to probability? [Preprint]
Szabo, Laszlo E. (2017) Meaning, Truth, and Physics. In G. Hofer-Szabó, L. Wronski (eds.) Making it Formally Explicit.
Conveying the quantum world is the ultimate challenge for artist duo Semiconductor, who turn the most abstruse scientific observations into captivating sensory experiences

Author(s): Jun Gao, Lu-Feng Qiao, Zhi-Qiang Jiao, Yue-Chi Ma, Cheng-Qiu Hu, Ruo-Jing Ren, Ai-Lin Yang, Hao Tang, Man-Hong Yung, and Xian-Min Jin

Quantum information technologies provide promising applications in communication and computation, while machine learning has become a powerful technique for extracting meaningful structures in “big data.” A crossover between quantum information and machine learning represents a new interdisciplinary…
[Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 240501] Published Mon Jun 11, 2018

Colombo, Matteo and Elkin, Lee and Hartmann, Stephan (2018) Being Realist about Bayes, and the Predictive Processing Theory of Mind. [Preprint]
Chen, Eddy Keming (2018) Quantum Mechanics in a Time-Asymmetric Universe: On the Nature of the Initial Quantum State. [Preprint]

Article written by