The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that temporal evolution of an isolated system occurs with non-diminishing entropy. In quantum realm, this holds for energy-isolated systems the evolution of which is described by the so-called unital quantum channel. The entropy of a system evolving in a non-unital quantum channel can, in principle, decrease. We formulate a general criterion of unitality for the evolution of a quantum system, enabling a simple and rigorous approach for finding and identifying the processes accompanied by decreasing entropy in energy-isolated systems. We discuss two examples illustrating our findings, the quantum Maxwell demon and heating-cooling process within a two-qubit system.
A number of recent theories of quantum gravity lack a one-dimensional structure of ordered temporal instants. Instead, according to many of these views, our world is either best represented as a single three-dimensional object, or as a configuration space composed of such three-dimensional objects, none of which bear temporal relations to one another. Such theories will be empirically self-refuting unless they can accommodate the existence of conscious beings capable of representation. For if representation itself is impossible in a timeless world, then no being in such a world could entertain the thought that a timeless theory is true, let alone believe such a theory or rationally believe it. This paper investigates the options for understanding representation in a three-dimensional, timeless, world. Ultimately it concludes that the only viable option is one according to which representation is taken to be deeply non-naturalistic. Ironically then we are left with two seemingly very unattractive options. Either a very naturalistic motivation—taking seriously a live view in fundamental physics—leads us to a very non-naturalistic view of the mental, or else views in the philosophy of mind partly dictate what is an acceptable theory in physics.
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Authors: Ding-fang Zeng
The goal of looking for errors in the information missing reasoning is not to find the error itself, but to find the hints of quantum gravitation theories which can unify general relativity and quantum mechanics harmonically. Basing on works [NPB917,178] and [NPB930,533], we provide in this paper a very clear and concrete answer to the title question and speculate its relevance with string theory counterparts and the gravitational wave phenomenological physics.
Tests of hidden variable models by the relaxation of the measurement independence condition. (arXiv:1804.06452v1 [quant-ph])
Bell inequalities or Bell-like experiments are supposed to test hidden variable theories based on three intuitive assumptions: determinism, locality and measurement independence. If one of the assumptions of Bell inequality is properly relaxed, the probability distribution of the singlet state, for example, can be reproduced by a hidden variable model. Models that deal with the relaxation of some condition above, with more than one hidden variable, have been studied in the literature nowadays. In this work the relation between the number of hidden variables and the degree of relaxation necessary to reproduce the singlet correlations is investigated. For the examples studied, it is shown that the increase of the number of hidden variables does not allow for more efficiency in the reproduction of quantum correlations.
The emergence of realistic properties is a key problem in understanding the quantum-to-classical transition. In this respect, measurements represent a way to interface quantum systems with the macroscopic world: these can be driven in the weak regime, where a reduced back-action can be imparted by choosing meter states able to extract different amounts of information. Here we explore the implications of such weak measurement for the variation of realistic properties of two-level quantum systems pre- and post-measurement, and extend our investigations to the case of open systems implementing the measurements.
Hidden Messenger from Quantum Geometry: Towards Information Conservation in Quantum Gravity. (arXiv:1804.06408v1 [gr-qc])
The back reactions of Hawking radiation allow nontrivial correlations between consecutive Hawking quanta, which gives a possible way to resolving the paradox of black hole information loss known as the hidden massenger method. In a recent work of Ma et al [arXiv:1711.10704], this method is enhanced by a general derivation using small deviations of the states of Hawking quanta off canonical typicality. In this paper, we use this typicality argument to study the effects of back reactions on quantum geometries described by spin network states, and discuss the viability of entropy conservation in loop quantum gravity. We find that such back reactions lead to small area deformations of quantum geometries including those of quantum black holes. This shows that the hidden-messenger method is still viable in loop quantum gravity, which is a first step towards resolving the paradox of black hole information loss in quantum gravity.